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Westward Migration and Indian Wars. Review. 1830s Indian Removal Act- legal to remove Indians from their land Worcester v. Georgia (1832) US Supreme Court says Indians have a right to the land Trail of Tears

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Presentation Transcript
  • 1830s
    • Indian Removal Act- legal to remove Indians from their land
    • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
      • US Supreme Court says Indians have a right to the land
    • Trail of Tears
      • Pres. Andrew Jackson will ignore the court case and forcefully remove Indians onto reservations in Oklahoma
life of the plains indians
Life of the Plains Indians
  • Introduction of Horse
    • Introduced by Spanish
    • Change life of Plains Indians
      • Greater movement- follow Buffalo herds
      • Create war among tribes
  • Buffalo
    • Indians are nomadic- follow Buffalo herds
    • Rely on Buffalo for everything
      • Food, clothing, shelter, tools, weapons
destruction of buffalo
Destruction of Buffalo
  • Westward migration will lead to destruction of Buffalo
    • Railroad tracks will replace grazing land
    • Settlers will hunt Buffalo for sport
  • Lead to ultimate destruction of Indian tribes
    • Be forced to adapt to new way of life
indian wars
Indian Wars
  • Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
    • US army (led by Gen. Chivington) attacked and massacred Indians in Colorado
    • About 70-150 Indians killed, mainly women and children
    • “I saw the bodies of those lying there cut all to pieces, worse mutilated than any I ever saw before; the women cut all to pieces ... With knives; scalped; their brains knocked out; children two or three months old; all ages lying there, from sucking infants up to warriors ... By whom were they mutilated? By the United States troops ...” quote by John Smith
    • Fingers and ears were cut off the bodies for the jewelry they carried. The body of White Antelope, lying solitarily in the creek bed, was a prime target. Besides scalping him the soldiers cut off his nose, ears, and testicles-the last for a tobacco pouch ... Quote by Stan Hoig
battle of little bighorn
Battle of Little Bighorn
  • Most famous Battle- June 25, 1876
    • Fought in Montana
    • Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
      • Combined group of Cheyenne and Sioux Indians
    • US Army 7th Cavalry- led by General George Custer
  • Custer and his men will be defeated and completely wiped out by Indians





Gen. Custer

other battles
Other Battles
  • Nez Perce Wars
    • Chief Joseph in the 1870s
  • Geronimo and Apaches
    • Mid and late 1880s
end of indian wars
End of Indian Wars
  • Battle of Wounded Knee
    • Fought December 29, 1890
    • South Dakota
    • Sioux warriors, women and children slaughtered
    • Signal end of wars with Plains Indians
    • Most will be moved to reservations
other events with indian wars
Other Events with Indian Wars
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
    • First formed in 1820s
    • Became BIA in 1840s
    • Be involved in many events to assimilate Indians
      • Sending children to boarding schools to learn English and culture
  • Century of Dishonor
    • Written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881
    • Book will discuss the injustices of the US government toward Indians (show that the US govt. often broke treaties made with Indians)
dawes act
Dawes Act
  • Passed by Congress in 1887
  • Goal- assimilate Indians into American society
    • Assimilate means to change (in this case under force) the culture of someone or a group
    • Ways Dawes Act will assimilate
      • Force Indians to become farmers
      • Force children to learn English and attend boarding schools
      • Indians will start to attend Protestant faiths and forget their tribal languages and religions