Chapter 8. The Motivation to Work. Module 8.1: An Introduction to Motivation. Central position of motivation in psychology Motivation concerns conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, & direction of ongoing behavior (Vinacke,’62).
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Chapter 8 The Motivation to Work
Module 8.1:An Introduction to Motivation • Central position of motivation in psychology • Motivation concerns conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, & direction of ongoing behavior • (Vinacke,’62)
Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology • First theories anchored motivation in notions of instincts (Freud) • “Instinct” gradually replaced by terms like need, motive, & drive • (Maslow; Herzberg, Alderfer, Deci) • Behaviorist approach (Skinner) • Field theory (Lewin) - Group dynamics • B = f (p*e)
Metaphors For Motivation(machine or Godlike? Weiner, ’91) • Person as machine • People’s behaviors & actions are reflexive & involuntary, performed without conscious awareness • Pushed by internal needs • Pulled by environmental stimuli
Metaphors For Motivation (cont’d)Godlike • Person as scientist • Seek information, test hypotheses • with limited rationality; (Simon,‘60; Tversky, ’82) • Person as judge (attributions to self, other) • Individual seeks information about extent person & others perceived as responsible for positive & negative events • Hypothesizes about foundation for events & actions of others • Person as intentional • Develops goals & plans with expectancies • (Tolman, 1930s) PhotoDisc/Getty Images
Meaning & Importance of Motivation in the Workplace • Motivation & performance Situational Constraints – (Motivation x Ability) = PERFORMANCE
Motivation & Work-Life Balance • Investigates whether satisfaction one experiences at work is affected by satisfaction one experiences in non-work & vice versa
Motivation & Attitudes • Attitudes • Relatively stable feelings or beliefs directed toward specific persons, groups, ideas, or jobs • Have become less important in study of work motivation over last several decades • “Under what work conditions are attitudes important?”
Motivation & Personality • Consistent relationships exist between personality characteristics & performance motivation • Neuroticism negatively related to performance motivation • Conscientiousness positively related to performance motivation
Module 8.2: Motivational Theories – Classic Approaches • Person-as-machine theories • Maslow’s need theory • Internal mechanical theory • All humans have basic set of needs that express themselves over life span of individual as internal “pushes” or drives
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 8.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Need Theory • Physiological needs • Basic needs like food & water • Security needs • Need to produce a secure environment • Love or social needs • Desire to be accepted by others • Esteem needs • Being respected for accomplishments or capabilities • Self-actualization • Desire to develop capabilities to fullest
Maslow’s Need Theory • Employer needs to know at what need level individual worker is operating • Group of workers may all be functioning at different need levels • Fits person-as-machine metaphor • Are need insatiable?(Hall & Nougaim, ’68; Lawler and Suttle, ’72)
Variations on Maslow’s Theory • Two-factor theory (Herzberg, 1966) • 2 basic needs, not 5 • Needs are independent (not hierarchical) • 1) Hygiene needs • Maslow’s physical & security needs • 2) Motivator needs • Maslow’s social, esteem, & self-actualization needs
Variations on Maslow’s Theory (cont'd) • ERG theory (Alderfer, 1972) • 3 basic needs, not 2 or 5 • Levels: • Existence (E) • Relatedness (R) • Growth (G) • Has not garnered much support
Reinforcement Theory: An External mechanical theory • Behavior depends on 3 elements: stimulus, response, & reward • Contingent reward • Reward depends on response • Intermittent & continuous rewards • Intermittent rewards produce higher performance levels Martial Colomb/Getty Images
Person-as-Godlike Theories:The Scientist Model • Vroom’s VIE theory • Valence • Strength of person’s preference for particular outcome. • Instrumentality • Perceived relationship between performance & attainment of a certain outcome. • Expectancy • Perceived relationship between effort and performance.
Scientist Models (cont'd) • Dissonance theory • Suggests that tension exists when individuals hold incompatible thoughts • Assumes that individuals always seek some sense of “balance” & will direct their behavior toward seeking & maintaining that balance
Scientist Models: Equity theory • Individuals look at world in terms of comparative inputs & outcomes • Compare their inputs & outcomes to those of “comparison others” Figure 8.2 Mathematical Description of Equity Theory
Module 8.3: Modern Approaches to Work Motivation • Person-as-intentional • Goal-setting theory • Notion of goal as a motivational force • Distinction between goal acceptance & goal commitment Lawrence M. Sawyer/Getty Images
Diagram of Goal Theory Figure 8.3 A Diagram of Goal Theory
Goal-Setting Theory (cont'd) • Feedback loop important between knowledge of results & intermediate stages • Control theory • Based on principle of feedback loop • Assumes individuals compare a standard to an actual outcome & adjust their behavior to bring outcome into agreement with a standard
Control Theory View of Goal Setting Figure 8.4 Control Theory View of Goal Setting Source: Austin and Klein (1996).
Relationships Among Needs, Motives, Goals, & Performance Figure 8.5 The Relationships among Needs, Motives, Goals, and Performance Source: Locke & Latham (1996).
Control Theories & the Concept of Self-Regulation • Self-regulation is compatible with control theory Figure 8.6 Simple Control Systems Model Source: Taylor, Fisher, & Ilgen (1984).
Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory • Belief in one’s capacity to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal • Developed & increased by: • Mastery experiences • Modeling • Social persuasion • Physiological states
Action Theory (Rubicon theory) • Broad consideration of role of intention in motivated behavior & connection between intention & action • Action phases in active goal pursuit • Predecisional • Postdecisional • Actional • Evaluative
Action Theory (cont'd) • Action has 2 elements • Action process • Action structure Figure 8.7 The Action Process Source: Frese & Zapf (1994).
Common Themes in Modern Approaches • Intention plays key role in motivated behavior • Concept of feedback critical in considering anything but the simplest act at one point in time • Theory should include element of person-as-scientist • Theory should include concept of self-assessment • Some non-cognitive element in the “ultimate” motivation theory
Entrepreneurs (EO):Role of Pattern Recognition (Frese & Fay, 2001) Figure 8.8
Module 8.4:Practical Issues in Motivation • Motivation can be measured • Motivational trait questionnaire (MTQ) • Measures 6 aspects of “general” motivation • Desire to learn • Mastery • Other referenced goals • Competitiveness • Worry • Emotionality
Entrepreneurial Orientation(Frese et al.) • Personality characteristics: • PI: Personal Initiative • Self starter; proactive • AO: Achievement Orientation • Need for achievement • RT: Risk Taking
Measuring Motivation • Judge & Ilies, (2002) • Conscientiousness & emotional stability • Erez & Judge (2001) • “core self-evaluations” • Kanfer (Heggestad & Kanfer, 2001) • Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)
Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation • Hofstede’s cultural theory • Cultures differ on 5 dimensions • Collectivism/individualism • Uncertainty avoidance • Masculinity/femininity • Power dimensions • Long-term vs. short-term orientation • Application to MTQ D. Normark/PhotoLink/Getty Images
Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation (Erez, 1997) (cont'd) • Types of motivational practices employed by managers across all cultures • Differential distribution of rewards • Participation in goal setting & decision making • Design & redesign of jobs & organizations • Quality improvement • How would you modify these practices to fit an organization you have worked for?
Generational Differences & Work Motivation • Generation • Defined by group members who share birth years & significant life events • e.g., Baby Boomers, Generation Xers, Generation Yers D. Berry/PhotoLink/Getty Images
Generational Differences (cont'd) • Generation Xers vs. Baby Boomers • Younger employees appear to be more “me” oriented • Today’s workers value “pride in work” less than workers of 1974 • Work is less important now than 25 years ago • Work becomes less idealized as workers age • ? Do Gen Xers cheat more than previous ones?
Motivational Interventions Hackman & Oldham JCM • Contingent rewards • Job enrichment (Tied to 5 job characteristics) • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance • Autonomy • Task feedback
Motivational Interventions (cont'd) • Productivity Measurement & Enhancement System (ProMES) • Utilizes goal setting, rewards, & feedback to increase motivation & performance • Evidence shows significant gains in productivity following use of ProMES
ProMES (Prichard, ’92) Steps for Implementation • Forming a design team • Identifying objectives • Identifying indicators 4) Defining contingencies 5) Designing the feedback system 6) Giving & responding to feedback 7) Monitoring the system
Example Feedback Reportfrom ProMES Figure 8.9