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Chapter 21: Solid, Toxic, and Hazardous Waste. 21.2 Waste Disposal Methods. Open dumps release hazardous materials into air and water Ocean dumping is nearly uncontrollable We often export waste to countries ill-equipped to handle it Landfills receive most of our waste

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21 2 waste disposal methods
21.2 Waste Disposal Methods
  • Open dumps release hazardous materials into air and water
  • Ocean dumping is nearly uncontrollable
  • We often export waste to countries ill-equipped to handle it
  • Landfills receive most of our waste
  • Incineration produces energy but causes pollution
21 3 shrinking the waste stream
21.3 Shrinking The Waste Stream
  • Recycling captures resources from garbage
  • What Do You Think? Environmental Justice
  • Recycling saves money, materials, energy, and space
  • Commercial-scale recycling and composting is an area of innovation
  • Demanufacturingis necessary for appliances and e-waste
  • Reuse is even more efficient than recycling
  • Reducing waste is often the cheapest option
21 4 hazardous and toxic wastes
21.4 Hazardous And Toxic Wastes
  • Hazardous waste must be recycled, contained, or detoxified
  • Superfund" sites are those listed for federal cleanup
  • Cleaning Up Toxic Waste with Plants: Phytoremediation
  • Brownfields present both liability and opportunity
  • Hazardous waste storage must be safe
  • What Can You Do? Alternatives to Hazardous Household Chemicals
superfund
Superfund
  • 1980: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
  • Potential Responsible Parties
    • Current owner or operator
    • Owner or operator of a site at the time of disposal
    • Person who arranged for disposal
    • Person who transported contaminant to a site; must have also selected that site
love canal
Love Canal
  • 1890’s: William T. Love planned a power generating canal around Niagara Falls
  • In 1920’s canal used for dumping by city of Niagara Falls
  • In 1942 Hooker Chemical granted right to dispose of waste in canal.
hooker chemical and love canal
Hooker Chemical and Love Canal
  • Canal drained and lined with thick clay
  • Waste buried in 55 gallon drums
  • By 1952, 21,000 tons of waste buried
    • caustics, alkalines
    • fatty acids
    • chlorinated hydrocarbons
hooker chemical and love canal9
Hooker Chemical and Love Canal
  • Love Canal waste buried 20-25 feet deep
  • Hooker Chemical bought canal and buffer on either side
  • Disposal complied with law and good practice at the time
  • City of Niagara Falls later attempted to buy site for a school
  • Hooker refused to sell on safety grounds
niagara falls and love canal
Niagara Falls and Love Canal
  • Hooker took school board to site, conducted borings and demonstrated contamination
  • City insisted on buying site anyway
  • Hooker sold on condition that they be held blameless for any future problems
niagara falls and love canal11
Niagara Falls and Love Canal
  • 1954: School site moved to avoid wastes
  • 1957: Sewers for subdivision breach wastes
  • 1977: Wet weather brings wastes to surface
  • 1978: Jimmy Carter declares emergency
  • 1995: Occidental Petroleum (which bought Hooker) settles for $129 million in damages
changing the rules
Changing the Rules
  • No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed (Article I, Sec. 9)
  • Retroactive criminal law is flatly unconstitutional
    • Can’t change penalties or rules of evidence
  • Retroactive civil law is Constitutional
    • Some civil/criminal retroactive laws are legal
  • Courts can refuse to enforce illegal or “unconscionable” contracts
criminal and civil law
Criminal and Civil Law
  • Criminal Law
    • Huge disparity of power
    • Burden of proof on State
    • Innocent until proven guilty
    • Reasonable doubt
  • Civil Law
    • Parties may be nearly equal
    • Somebody is going to be unhappy
    • Preponderance of the evidence
    • Control of the Facts