Global News and Information Flow in the Internet Age Learning unit 5 SESSION 19-24
MO2 • Evaluate the role and impact of media and new communication technology in a globalised world. • MO4 • Differentiate between media communication practices in South Africa and abroad. • MO5 • Analyse the impact of global communication on various socio-economic and technological environments Module outcome covered
The major international news agencies. • Broadcast news services. • Global newspapers, magazines and broadcasters. • World news flow and its impact on developing countries. Learning Content:
Name and briefly discuss the four major Western international news agencies in terms of their history and current state. • Identify and describe two major South African news agencies. • Develop a foundational knowledge of influential global newspapers, magazines and broadcasters. Learning Objectives:
Analyse the concerns of developing countries over the major Western news agencies control of the world’s news flow. • Understand the challenges involved in developing a credible international news agency. • Discuss the role of news flow on the Internet in nondemocratic states.
Prescribed text pp.105-129. • Additional notes are given in the Introduction to this Learning Unit to supplement the prescribed textbook. • Pay specific attention to the additional information on South African news agencies. • Pages to focus on: pp.107-115, 118-121, and 123-127 Material to be used :
Before the first class, be sure that you read Sections 1-4 of this Learning Unit, and pp.105-129 in the textbook. • As you read these sections, see if you can find the answers to the following questions: How to prepare for this Learning Unit:
How has the Internet revolutionised the world? • What is the role of international news agencies? • How will the Internet and information flow change communication for developing countries?
. Berger, G. 2009. How the Internet impacts on international news. International Communication Gazette 71(5):355-371. • Green, L. 2002. Communication, technology and society. London, Sage. • Independent online. [online]. Available: http://www.iol.co.za/about-iol-1.458 • News24.com. [online]. Available: http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica • South African Press Association. [online]. Available: • http://www.sapa.co.za/ Recommended Additional Reading
Choose a current newsworthy topic and then go online and look for how various news agencies report on the same topic. Which do you prefer and why? Why do you think there are differences in the way news is presented online? Are there any similarities? • Due Date 5 March 2014 HOMEWORK
The flow of information can be seen as one of the most vital processes associated with globalisation and global communication • .Focus on the international flow of news and the direction of this information flow. • The world receives the majority of its information from developed countries, specifically the United States of America – what problem or concern, if any, do you think this might pose to the rest of the world? Introduction
The role of global news agencies from a historical as well as current perspective is then investigated. • National news agencies for you to become familiar with.
Broadcasters: News agencies: Agence France-Presse; Associated Press; Reuters; United Press International; South African Press Agency; Independent Online; News24.com. • CNN International, • BBC News, • BBC World, • BBC America, • Al Jazeera, • Voice of America.
Magazines: Newspapers: The New York Times, The Times (London), The Guardian (Britain), The Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times (London). • Time, • Newsweek, • The Economist (Britain).
You should try and read or watch at least one article/story covered by all these news media as well as become familiar with your own local news vehicles. • Conclusion: commentary on the concerns and issues raised largely by developing countries in terms of the one-sided approach to the global flow of news and information. • Concern that the information dissemination is one-way and that the people of these developing nations will be influenced by the culture and identity of the developed nations.
Global News and Information Flow in the Internet Age • December 2004 internet users world-wide had a grown to nearly 700 million from around 360 million in 2000. • The internet is universally characterised as a revolutionary medium because it has opened up an altogether new world of information and communication. • Speed means of communication for personal and professional reasons, thus multimedia, interactive medium: news, information and entertainment. • This need based information consumption pattern
Consumer is the receiving end of news and information selected and purveyed by traditional media gatekeepers. • Internet reach 12.7 percent of the world population was using the internet by September 2004. • Internet World stats 1,5 billion people out of the estimated 6.8 billion people on the planet in 2010
Because new agencies must please all news editors, everywhere, they must work harder than their client journalists to create the appearance of objectivity and neutrality. • In so doing, they manufacture a bland and homogeneous, but still ideologically distinctive, view of the world; stories challenging the ideological positions of the dominant political players on the world scene NEWS AGENCIES
Traditional media will remain the primarily source of news and information for those of world’s population who lack access to the internet. • Traditional news operations of international directions in packaging of news for online consumers • Issues of quality and quantity in the flow of news between the developed.
ORIGNS AND EARLY HISTORY OF NEWS AGENCIES • Three of the major Western news agencies • Associated Press [AP],Reuters , and Agency France FrancePresse [AFP] • Penny press ,had emerged as advertising became a significant source of revenue in industrially expanding societies rising literacy and economic levels. • Mass market for news in the emergency of democratic market society . • Americans were interested in business and politics than ever before. • Growth of capitalistic middle class
Mass democracy • French saw their versions of so called cheap press in 1836 • Britain selling their products to many newspapers ,news agencies could supply a large amount of newspapers at less expense than a newspaper • Greater financial resources than the average newspaper to invest in technical facilities • Transmit news as quickly as possible
Name and briefly discuss the four major Western international news agencies in terms of their history and current state.
[AFP] was created by Frenchman Charles Louis Havas in 1835. • Havas Agency at a time, Paris based news distribution service used merchants and government officials • Havas had started 10 years earlier. • Demand for news substantially up because of emergency of the cheap press in France • Expanded his operations by hiring more correspondents using the newly invented telegraphy for faster delivery of news. AFP HISTORY
1860 his reporting news from all over Europe, newspapers in most parts of continent were subscribing to his agency. • French government purchased the the agency’s 1940 to propaganda office . • Germans took official Nazi news agency • 1944 given its present name,AgencePresse. • In 1957 ,the French AFP
[AP] grew out of the harbour News Association formed by 10 men representing six New York City newspapers in 1848 . • Collecting international news and offset the prohibitive cost of transmitting news by telegraphy . • The newspapers at that time completed by sending reporters out in rowboats to meet the ships as they arrived in New York harbour • Competition had AP -HISTORY
Expensive that it has decided to form a news cooperative • Cooperation among newspapers continue to be the operational policy of today’s AP. • 1849 the harbour News Association opened its overseas first bureau • Halifax,Nova Scotia arrived from Europe • Telegraphs stories to the newspaper before ships docked in New York • Euroepe was arriving directly by transoceanic cable
Merger Harbour News Association • New York Associated Press in 1857 • To cut telegraphic cost • New York AP formed news exchange agreements with regional newspaper groups • Other parts of the country, including Western Associated Press, Southern Associated Press and Philadelphia Associated Press. • The New York AP distributed the most important news to them, including news from Washington DC and d overseas.
Western Associated Press withdrew the cooperative in 1885 andwent on to form the (AP) • Illusions ,in 1892 .the New York AP went out of business that year. • AP expanded rapidly with 700 newspapers by mid 1890. • 1900 the AP was reooganised. • 1945 New York court held illegal a clause in AP bylaws under which members could block the member of the competitor in the same city to obtain AP news service by requiring election to membership.
AP membership was opened to all qualified U.S newspapers • In 1946, radio stations, for the first time, were granted associate membership in AP • Allowed them to subscribe to its regular service.
Third largest global wire service after AP and Reuters • Provides variety of services for traditional media, general economic, sports news in English, French Germany ,Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic • Developed online services • HQ in Paris • Delivers about 2 million words a day AP NOW
General news -4 to 6 thousand words a day on politics, diplomacy, economic, society, sports, science, medicine, culture people and human interest • AFP sport services provide ten thousand words a day • Subscribers include traditional media business, universities embassies institutions and public offices. • 1995 AFP ended agreement with AP on its provision of American news and set up their own network in US
It has developed a niche amongst news agencies for photos because of their unique angles • Their archives has more than 7 million photos dating from 1930 • Digital photos are supplemented with about 80 maps, charts and other graphics • Subscribers include 650 newspapers,400 radio and Tv stations, 1500 business and banks, about 100 news agencies • Employees about 1200 reporters,200 photographers,2000 stringers in 165 countries
Suppliers radio features ,reports, computer graphic and multi media services intranet and Internet • AFX News subsidiary of AFP economic wire with HQ in London • Focusing on Europe coverage in real time business and financial services to meet requirements of international banking and investor community in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Danish • Strong focus is on equities and economic commentary • AFX News products are available on Internet satellite and terrestrial links
Agreement in 2000 with France’s Alcatel telecommunications and Finland’s Nokia to distribute information over fixed telephone lines and mobile internet services. • The service to enable telecommunications carriers to provide their users with access to personalised information anytime anywhere on any device • Access to personalisation and filtering tools that focus on individual profile and interests • Service is available in English, German, Spanish, French Portuguese and Arabic
Paul Julius Reuter, a Germany immigrant who took British citizenship in March 1957 opened a London office. • Transmitted stork market quotation between London and Paris using the first undersea cable • Using pigeon to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels. • Entire British press as well as to other Europeans countries • Include European general and economic news REUTERS
Battles lost and won of political crisis • Bad weather could affect market and that news of market crisis often had political effects. • Branch offices sprang Europe and beyond as international telegraphy network developed • 1861 Reuter reporters were allocated in Asia,South Africa and Australia • By 1874 far east and South America
1915 ,the agency became a private company later that • Press Association ,the UK • 1925 ,1939 street in London ,In 1941 ,following aquisation of substantial amount of British press association. • Coop[erativepof substantial amount of British press association. • Cooperative property of British press • Routers trust was neutrality and independency of Reuters • Public company in 1984 on the London stock exchange share ownership • Significant holdings in Britain and United States .
UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL • The United Press International (UPI) was established on July 21 ,1907 • Founder ,E W .Scripps • Believed there should be no restriction on who could buy news from a news service • Opposed to the restrictive membership rules of the AP • In 1906,he purchased the control of the publishers Press ,small news service in the East UPI
Merged the three services following year to form the United Press Associations • United Press international on May 16 ,1958 joined with those of William Randolph Hearst’s international News service and international the world News photos • Instrumental in freeing up news collection and dissemination worldwide by rejecting a cartel arrangement established by the other major Western news agencies in 1869
AP, Reuters,AFP and the Germany news agency Wolff had agreed to collect and distribute news exclusively in certain regions of the world and exchange it amongst themselves for subsequent distribution amost subscribers. • UPI challenged that cartel in 1907 by selling its services abroad first to Briatin, Japan and South America, AP joined and signed agreements with Havas in 1918 and Reuters in 1926 to sell services in their exclusive zones • UPI become the worlds largest private owned news agency but failed to keep up with competing services AND WENT THROUGH BANKRUPTY TWICE
UPI was sold in May 2000 to News World Communication which was funded by Sun Myung Moon of South Korea • News World Communication which publishes the Washington Times, other newspapers and magazines in more than 20 countries • The unification Church lead by Rev Sun Myung Moon has no ties with the company According to CEO.
Identify and describe two major South African news agencies. • Refer to additional information on your manual and research on the internet
South African Press Agency; • Independent Online; • News24.com. Group Presentation
Develop a foundational knowledge of influential global newspapers, magazines and broadcasters. Class Discussions
Role of purveyors of news globally • The New York Times- America, The Times of London and the Guardian (Britain) are read by more than 30 percent of the world population • The London times is a tabloid • Valued by opinion leaders and have high circulation figures • Printed via satellite and available on internet as well and distributed internationally. Newspapers
The Wall Street Journal flagship of Dow Jones and Company, the Wall Street Journal Europe published in Brussels, Asian Wall Street Journal (Hong Kong) • The Financial Times London also published in North america
Timeed for Canada, Europe, Middle East,Asia and Africa and Latin America circulation in 2005 was 4,2 million in USA • Newsweek circulation in 2005 was 3,1 million ed in Europe Japan, Lation America, Pacific and South Asia • Economist circulation in 2005 was over a million in USA but was the fasted growing magazine around the world. Magazines
CNNI • Global 24 hour network with comprehensive coverage • More than 37 bureaus worldwide • Programmed for global audience • 5 separate broadcast feed to Europe/ Middle East/ Africa, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Latin America and North America • Seen in more than 176 million TV households in more than 200 countries TELEVISION
CNN /US • More than 86 million subscribers in US • News gathering network of 4000 staff 900 global TV affiliations
BBC World 1991 • biggest competitor of CNN international • Broadcast 24 hours a day from HQ in London • Global 24 hour network with comprehensive coverage • More than 58 bureaus worldwide • 250 correspondents and 2000 staff • Programmed for global audience • Seen in more than 258 million TV households in more than 200 countries and territories • Funded by advertising and subscriptions • Dedicated programming to audience Europe, Indiaand Japanese translation