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Intro to Anatomy and Physiology

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Intro to Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Intro to Anatomy and Physiology

  2. Anatomy and Physiology • Anatomy- the science of structure and location and the relationship among the structures • Physiology- the science of body functions and metabolism STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ARE DEPENDENT ON EACH OTHER

  3. Anatomy—Levels of Study • Gross anatomy • Large structures • Easily observable • Microscopic Anatomy • Very small structures • Can only be viewed with a microscope Figure 14.1

  4. Smooth muscle cell Molecules Cellular levelCells are made up of molecules Atoms Chemical levelAtoms combine toform molecules Smoothmuscletissue Tissue levelTissues consist ofsimilar types of cells Epithelialtissue Smoothmuscletissue Bloodvessel(organ) Organismal levelHuman organismsare made up of manyorgan systems Cardio-vascularsystem Connectivetissue Organ levelOrgans are made upof different typesof tissues Organ system levelOrgan systems consist of differentorgans that work together closely Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1,

  5. TissuesA group of interrelated cells that function together and perform specialized activities • 4 Types of Tissue in the body • -Epithelial • -Connective (loose,dense,cartilage,bone and blood) • -Muscle • -Nervous

  6. Organ System Overview 1. Integumentary Forms the external bodycovering Protects deeper tissue frominjury Helps regulate body temperature Sensory organ Synthesizes Vitamin D Figure 1.2a

  7. Organ System Overview 2. Skeletal Protects and supportsbody organs Provides muscleattachment for movement Site of blood cellformation Stores minerals Figure 1.2b

  8. Organ System Overview 3. Muscular Produces movement Maintains posture Produces heat Figure 1.2c

  9. Organ System Overview 4. Nervous Fast-acting controlsystem Responds to internal andexternal change Activates muscles andglands Figure 1.2d

  10. Organ System Overview 5. Endocrine Secretes regulatoryhormones for homeostasis • Growth • Reproduction • Metabolism Figure 1.2e

  11. Organ System Overview 6. Cardiovascular Transports materials in bodyvia blood pumped by heart • Oxygen • Carbon dioxide • Nutrients • Wastes Figure 1.2f

  12. Organ System Overview 7. Lymphatic Returns fluids to blood vessels Cleanses the blood Involved in immunity Figure 1.2g

  13. Organ System Overview 8. Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.2h

  14. Organ System Overview 9. Digestive Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material Figure 1.2i

  15. Organ System Overview 10. Urinary Eliminates nitrogenous wastes Maintains acid-base balance Regulates water and electrolytes Figure 1.2j

  16. Organ System Overview 11. Reproductive Produces offspring Figure 1.2k–l