COMENIUS REGIO SAVE EU WORKSHOP on CLIL Luisanna Paggiaro Lend Pisa 28 Nov. 2013 Mehisto P., MarshD., FrigolsM.J.
Table of contents • Pre-knowledge(Sheet 1) • Core CLIL features • Cognitive skills: LOTS and HOTS; Bloom and others(Sheet 2) • Language skills: the Language Tryptic • Materials: selection and adaptation • Activity types(Sheet 3) • Modes and tasks • Planning a CLIL unit: the 4Cs as a planning guide (Sheet 4)
a)PRE-KNOWLEDGE Chooseone of the followingstatementsabout CLIL and supportit with yourownarguments 1. CLIL is a “Europeansolution to a Europeanneed” (The Europeansupranational state in the makingsince the midtwentiethcenturyhasbeenbuiltuponidealslikemobility, economiccohesion, maintenance of cultural diversity and otherprinciplesthatwould be hard to makerealwithoutefficientlanguagelearningschemes) 2. CLIL is a new vision of languagecalled for a new vision of learning. CLIL islinked to experientialviews of secondlanguageacquisition and consequently a new methodology of languageteaching 3. CLIL is a means to shift from a monoglot to a multilingualideology and to sow the seeds for a languagechange to becomerealthrougheducation in Europe
Content and LanguageIntegratedLearning(CLIL) is a dual-focused educational approach in whichanadditionallanguageisusedfor the learning and teachingofbothcontentand language. Thatis in the teaching and learningprocess, thereis a focus notonly on content, and notonly on language. Eachisinterwoven, evenif the emphasisisgreater on one or the other at a giventime. CLIL: Content and LanguageLearning, Coyle, Hood and Marsh (2010). The woodcutprintentitledSky and Water 1byMauritsCornelisEscher (1898-1972) offersanexcellentpictorialrepresentationof the idea ofinterwoveness.
The 4Cs Frameworkof CLIL C O N T E X T CONTEXT Culture Culture Content Communication CONTEXT Cognition Culture C O N T E X T
b)CORE CLIL FEATURES • Safe and enrichinglearningenvironment • Using routine activities and discourse • Building ss confidencetoexperimentwithlanguage and content • Increasing ss languageawareness • Mutiple focus • Supportingcontent and languagelearning • Integratingseveralsubjetcs, alsothroughcross-curricularthemes and projects • Supportingreflection on the learningprocess • Authenticity • Letting ss askfor the language help theyneed • Maximising the accomodationof ss interests • Usingcurrentmaterialsfrom the media and othersources • Activelearning • Sscommunicating more than the teacher • Ssevaluate progress in achievinglearningoutcomes • Favouringpeer co-operative work • Scaffolding • Building on ss’existingknowledge, skills, attitude and experiencerepacking information in user-friendlyways • Fostering creative and criticalthinking
Create Evaluate Analyse Apply Understand Remember Bloom’s taxonomy (revisedbyAnderson and Krathwohl, 2001)
c)Cognitive skills: LOTS and HOTS HOTS • to develop reasoning skills • to develop inquiry and discussion • to develop creative thinking • to evaluate the work of oneself and others • to hypothesize about what could happen LOTS • to remember information • to order information • to define objects • to check understanding • to review learning Sheet 2
d)LANGUAGE SKILLS The language necessary for day to day living, including conversations with friends, informal interactions The language necessary to understand and discuss content in the classroom BICS Basic Interpersonal CommunicationSkills CALP Cognitive AcademicLanguageProficiency Contextembedded Cognitivelyundemanding Cognitivelydemanding Contextreduced
THE LANGUAGE TRIPTYCH Language oflearning CLIL linguisticprogressionLanguagelearning and languageusing Languageforlearning Languagethroughlearning from CLIL, Coyle, Hood and Marsh, CUP
COMMUNICATION Languageoflearning Key vocabulary Languageforlearning Askingeachotherquestions: What do youknowabout…? Classifying: The differentelementsare…. Comparing and contrasting: The animals living in the savannah are biggerthan the ones living in a pond Other: Whatdoesitmean? How do youspellit? Languagethroughlearning Distinguishlanguageneededtocarry out activities Retainlanguagerevisedbyboth the teacher and the learner Makeuseofpeerexplanations Record, predict and learnnewwordswhicharisefromactivities
Language oflearning Ananalysis of languageneededforlearnerstoaccessbasicconcepts and skillsrelatingtothesubjectthemeortopic. Learnersneedtoaquirelanguagespecifictothesubject and thethematiccontent. Thismeansshiftinglingisticprogressionfrom a dependancyongrammaticallevels of difficultytowardsfunctional and notionallevelsof difficultydemandedbythecontent.
Language forlearning Thekind of languageneededtofunction in a foreignlanguageenvironment. Learnersneedstrategiestohelpthem use theforeignlanguageeffectively. Thelearnerneedsto be supported in developingskillssuch as thoseneededforpairwork, cooperativegroupwork, askingquestions, debating, chatting, enquiring, thinking, memorizing, etc.
Language throughlearning Effectivelearningcannottake place without active involvement of language and thinking. Whenlearners are encouragedtoarticulatetheirunderstanding, then a deeperlevel of learningtakes place. Thisemerginglanguageneedsto be capturedbytheteacher, butitisdifficulttopredictbeforehandwhatwill emerge.
The language of science Science subjects use language to describe, explain and analysescientificphenomena • Input (spoken, written and visual information) • Teacherexplanations, instructions and demonstrations • Writtentexts: scientificarticles, laboratory reports instructionsfoeexperiments • Video or audio input: websites, scientificmodels on the web, online games • Objects and models • Hands-on work: experiments, field work and demonstrations • Visuals: pictures, photographs, models, diagrams, graphs and charts, etc • Throughlearningabout science, learnersdeveloplanguage for thinkingskillssuchas: • Reasoning • Questioning • Creative problem-solving • Evaluating From CLIL Activities, L. Dale and R. Tanner, CUP, 2012
SCAFFOLDING Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals (Sawyer, 2006). • Examples of scaffolding are • creating interest • breaking down tasks into small steps • providing before, during and after task support • using visuals and realia • demonstrating tasks • using word banks, glossaries, sentence substitution tables, writing frames • using model texts for production of language • providing constructive feedback
e)CLIL MATERIALS • SELECTION • CLIL materialsneedto show curriculum subjectspresented in a non-native language. • They are differentfrom ELT materials (selectedbecauseof a grammar or a functionalsyllabus). • CLIL materials are selectedbecause of the subjectcontent; the languageneeded to support the subjecthas to be considered. • ADAPTATION • Materialscan be translated from the L1 curriculum, taken from native speaker coursebooks, downloaded from the Internet or made by teachers. • Materials can be adapted • by reorderinglanguage in a rubric • paraphrasinglanguage • removingunnecessarydetails • reducinglength of sentences
f)ACTIVITY TYPES ELT ACTIVITIES CLIL ACTIVITIES Word/sentencetablecompletion Information transfer Featureidentification (underlining key words) Poster presentation Loop or domino games Pyramid discussion Hot seat • Cloze test • Gap fill • Labelling • Matching • Multiple choice • T/F • Orderingwords/sentences • Jigsawreading/listening Sheet 4
g) MODES AND TASKS • Alternatingvariousmodeswithdifferentpuposes • Frontal • Individual • Pair • Group • Plenary • Tasks are low or higherorder: • Copying • Readingaloud • Analysing • Imagining • Writingcreatively • Varioustypes of tasks: Jigsaw; information-gap; problemsolving; decisionmaking; opinion exchange
h) PLANNING Traditionalelements CLIL elements The 4C have to be present Integration betweencognition and language True-to-life tasks Support to learning (scaffolding) Learner’s production Integratedevaluation • Needanalisys • Objectives • Title and topic • Timing and pacing • Activities • Materials • Resources and media • Criteria of evaluation
The 4Cs as a planning guide (1) 1. Start with content. Define it What will I teach? What will they learn? What are my teaching aims/objectives? What are the learning outcomes? What language do they need to work with the content? Specialized vocabulary and phrases? What kind of talk will they engage in? Will I need to check out key grammatical coverage of a particular tense or grammar feature? What about the language of tasks and classroom activities? What about discussion and debate? 2. Now link content with communication
The 4Cs as a planning guide (2) • 3. Then explore the kind of thinking skills you can develop What kind of questions must I ask in order to go beyond ‘display’ questions? Which tasks will I develop to encourage higher order thinking- what are the language/communication as well as the content implications? Which thinking skills will we concentrate on which are appropriate for the content? What are the cultural implications of the topic? How does the CLIL context allow for ‘value added’? What about otherness and self? How does this connect with the all Cs 4. Finally Culture is not a post script but rather a thread which weaves its way throughout the topic From Planning Tools for Teachers, Do Coyle, 2005
WEB REFERENCES • CLIL- Planning Tools for Teachers, Do Coyle, University of Nottingham, 2005. http://www.slideshare.net/gorettiblanch/theoretical-clil-framework • CLIL - European Commission http://ec.europa.eu/languages/language-teaching/content-and-language-integrated-learning_en.htm • CLIL CONSORTIUMhttp://www.clilviu.es/ • TIECLIL , http://www.tieclil.org/index.htm • One Stop English - CLIL , http://www.onestopenglish.com/clil/ • CLIL Matrix , http://archive.ecml.at/mtp2/CLILmatrix/ • AECLIL Project Assessment and evaluation in CLIL, http://aeclil.altervista.org/ • CLIL-CD European Framework for CLIL Teacher Education • http://clil-cd.ecml.at/ • CLIL PRACTICE: Perspectives from the field http://www.icpj.eu/ • ALI CLIL http://www.progettolingue.net/aliclil