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CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning. What is CLIL?. An approach? A methodology? Nothing new? A philosophy? A process? Good?. Teaching Content Through English Teaching English Through Content Foreign Language Medium Instruction (FLMI)

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Content and Language Integrated Learning

Steve Darn

what is clil
What is CLIL?
  • An approach?
  • A methodology?
  • Nothing new?
  • A philosophy?
  • A process?
  • Good?

Steve Darn

by any other name
Teaching Content Through English

Teaching English Through Content

Foreign Language Medium Instruction (FLMI)

Teaching Through Foreign Languages (TTFL)

Teaching Content in a Foreign Language (TCFL)

Dual-focused Language Instruction

Content-support ELT

Adjunct / Linked Language courses

Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD)

Four-handed foreign language instruction

Learning with Languages

Learning through an additional language

Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP)

Plurilingual Instruction

Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC)

Extended Second Language Learning

Language-enhanced Content Instruction

Integrated Curriculum

Bridge Program

Cross-Curricular Teaching

Interdisciplinary Teaching

Learning skills based ELT / ESP

Content-based Instruction (CBI)

Content-based Language Instruction (CLII)

Content-based Language Teaching (CBLT)

Integration of Content and Language

Content and Language Integrated Classrooms

English-enriched Content Teaching

Content-enriched English Teaching

English-focused Content Teaching

Content-focused English Teaching

Content-centered English Teaching

English-centered Content Teaching

Content-driven English Teaching

English-driven Content Teaching

English-sensitive Content Teaching

Content-sensitive English Teaching

Content-oriented Language Learning

Content-infused Language Teaching

Theme-based Language Teaching

Topic-based Language Teaching

Discipline-based ESL Instruction

Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching

By any other name…..

Steve Darn

a definition
A definition
  • CLIL refers to any dual-focused educational context in which an additional language is used as a medium in the teaching and learning of non-language content. It is an umbrella term covering aspects of:
  • Language Across the Curriculum
  • Bilingual Education
  • Content-based instruction/learning

Steve Darn

another definition
Another definition

CLIL is the meeting point of content and

language in space (the classroom) and

time (the lesson).

Steve Darn

why clil
  • Economic(al) reason
  • Political reason
  • Pedagogical reason
  • Intercultural reason

Steve Darn

  • Every teacher is by definition a language teacher.
  • Every school should have a language policy.
  • Language is the principal means of making sense of knowledge.

Steve Darn

languages in europe
Languages in Europe

The EU has 23 official languages

The cost of translation in all EU institutions is estimated at €800 millionp.a.

Steve Darn

clil and elt
  • Communicative approach
  • Process rather than product
  • Message rather than medium
  • Integration rather than isolation
  • Learner potential rather than teacher input
  • Language across the curriculum

Steve Darn

how does clil work
How does CLIL work?
  • Knowledge of the language becomes the means of learning content
  • Language is integrated into the broad curriculum.
  • CLIL is based on language acquisition rather than learning.
  • Learning is improved through increased motivation.
  • Language is seen in real-life situations in which students can acquire the language. This is natural language development.
  • CLIL is long-term learning. Students become academically proficient in English after 5-7 years in a good bilingual program.
  • Fluency is more important than accuracy. Learners develop fluency by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes.
  • Reading is the essential skill.

Steve Darn

learning by
Learning by….

CLIL is material driven

Steve Darn

research foundations
Research Foundations
  • It takes 5-7 years for students in a quality bilingual program to become academically proficient in English.
  • Language acquisition is cyclical, not a linear process.
  • Learners acquire best when they create, discover and construct their own meanings.
  • Language is a means, not an end, and when learners are interested in a topic, they will be motivated to acquire language to communicate.
  • Fluency precedes accuracy and errors are a natural part of language learning.
  • Learners develop fluency in English by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes.
  • Reading is essential for developing academic English skills.

Steve Darn

the benefits of clil
The benefits of CLIL
  • Introduce the wider cultural context
  • Prepare for internationalisation
  • Enhance the school profile (bilingual education)
  • Improve overall and specific language competence
  • Prepare for future studies and / or working life
  • Develop multilingual interests and attitudes
  • Diversify methods of teaching and learning
  • Increase learner motivation

Steve Darn

clil in the classroom
CLIL in the classroom
  • CLIL curriculum
  • CLIL teachers
  • CLIL lessons

Steve Darn

the clil curriculum
The CLIL curriculum
  • All or some subjects are taught through a foreign or second language
  • The curriculum is based on the 4 Cs - CONTENT, COMMUNICATION, COGNITION and CULTURE
  • More content is taught as language competence increases
  • There is no language syllabus
  • CLIL starts in elementary school

Steve Darn

clil lessons
CLIL lessons
  • Contain the 4 Cs
  • Are not language lessons or subject lessons delivered in a foreign language
  • The subject matter determines the language needed to learn. Language is not graded.
  • Are often based on reading or listening texts
  • Are similar to ‘integrated skills’ lessons, incorprtae aspects of the lexical approach and are humanistic and communicative.

Steve Darn

a clil lesson framework
A CLIL lesson framework

There is no such thing as a ‘CLIL lesson’, but

lessons often follow a pattern:

  • Processing the text
  • Organisation of knowledge
  • Language identification
  • Tasks for learners

Steve Darn

an interactive text
An interactive text

Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including cotton and corduroy. Originally work clothes, they became popular among teenagers starting in the 1950s. Historic brands include Levi's and Wrangler. Today Jeans are a very popular form of casual dress around the world and come in many styles and colors. The earliest known pre-cursor for jeans is the Indian export of a thick cotton cloth, in the 16th century, known as dungaree. Dyed in indigo, it was sold near the Dongarii Fort near Mumbai. Jeans were first created in Genoa. The first denim came from Nîmes,France.

Steve Darn

jean language
made from/made of

a variety of

popular among

form of

earliest known

pre-cursor for

known as

dyed in

first created in/by/as






casual dress




‘Jean’ language
  • passives for describing a manufacturing process
  • reduced relative clauses

Steve Darn

a student generated text
A student generated text

Levi's® is a brand of riveted denimjeans manufactured by Levi Strauss & Co. It is thought that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to goldminers during the California Gold Rush. Modern jeans began to appear in the 1920s.By the 1990s, the brand was facing competition from other brands and cheaper products from places like China, Hong Kong, and Vietnam.

In 2000, the "Launderette" advertisement for Levi's 501s was named the 6th best television commercial ever. The advertisement featured the song I Heard It Through the Grapevine by Marvin Gaye.

The new RedWire DLX Jeans will have iPod remote control fitted in its pockets, and comes complete with attached headphones. A pair will cost $200.

Steve Darn


This is a/the …

That is a …

That’s the …

This is called a/the …

It comes from a …

It’s from a …

The … structure is called the …

The … … are called ….

At the top of the … there is a (adj) part called the ….

Together, the … and the … are called the ….

Describing appearance/structure

It looks like …

It’s got/hasn’t got …

It has/doesn’t have …

All … have …, a …, and ….

The … are the often highly (adj) parts which … (function verb).

They are (adj) and are attached to the ….

The … are arranged in a ring around the centre of the ...

They consist of a ..with a .. shape at the end.

… and is shaped rather like a ….

… and is divided into two parts.

The top of the … is called the ….

The .. is attached to the bottom of the .. by a

A long tube grows out of the …, this is the ..

Describing location

It is found in the … of the …

The … are found at the base of the ….

They are (adj.) and are attached to the ….

The … are arranged in a ring around the centre of the ….

The … is found in the centre of the …,

The .. is attached to the bottom of the .. by a

They are inside the ….

Describing function

The … is the part which …

The … is where … is carried out

The … is used for …-ing

The … has the role of …-ing

The carries out the function of …-ing

The … has a …-ing role

The … is a …

The …’s job is to …

It does … the …-ing

A CLIL Lesson – LanguageAim: to identify, locate and describe the functions of a range of plant and human organs

Steve Darn

clil teachers
CLIL teachers

CLIL teachers are:

  • Subject teachers who can also teach language
  • Language teachers who can teach content
  • Competent in the target language
  • Properly trained and involved in INSET

CLIL teachers are good at:

  • identifying the core language of a subject
  • working with texts and words
  • designing tasks and projects
  • using technology

Steve Darn

team teaching
Team teaching

Subject Teacher

Language Teacher

Vocational Trainer

Steve Darn

benefits to teaching
Benefits to teaching
  • Motivation for teaching increases
  • Each discipline becomes stronger on its own merit
  • Teachers expand their repertoire of teaching techniques and strategies
  • Mutual respect among teachers of various disciplines increases.

Steve Darn

  • Opposition to language teaching by subject teachers
  • Most current CLIL programs are experimental
  • CLIL is based on language acquisition
  • Lack of CLIL teacher-training
  • Reduction of comprehension according to language competence
  • It is unnatural or difficult to teach some subjects using CLIL

Steve Darn


Steve Darn

  • Contexts
  • Integrating subjects and languages
  • Training
  • Materials
  • Recognition
  • Testing and assessment
  • Teacher confidence and collaboration
clil continuum
CLIL Continuum


Subject teachers with ELT training

Language acquisition


Language learning

Language teachers with subject knowledge


Steve Darn

clil in turkey
CLIL in Turkey?
  • What is done already in schools and universities?
  • Motivation
  • The ‘prep’ year
  • Europeanisation

Steve Darn

four websites
Four Websites

Steve Darn

thank you for listening
Thank you for listening

Steve Darn