Needs Assessment or Analysis Required Performance Need (Gap) Actual Performance
Needs Assessment • A training “need” exists when there is a gap between what is required of a person to perform their work competently and what they actually know. • A training “needs assessment or analysis” is the process used to determine if training is necessary. That is, determining if a “need” exists and what training is required to fill the gap.
Results of Needs Assessment • Used to determine subject matter • Used to determine who needs training • Used to determine desired training outcomes • Used to provide a basis for measurement • Used to gain management’s support
Systems Approach to Needs Assessment • 3 Key Variables or Levels of Assessment • The organization • The Task • The individual who does the work
Organizational Analysis • Examines the appropriateness of training, given the business strategy/examining the climate & culture • Examines the resources available/support from Mgmt • Examines where in the org. training activities should be done – all units usually don’t have same needs
Organizational Analysis Con’t • Often Includes: • An examination of the structure • An examination of policies and procedures • An examination of processes • An examination of other factors that affect organization and employee performance
Where to Collect Data • Archival Data – e.g., grievances, quality measures, absence records, standard costs, downtime reports, exit interviews, customer complaints etc. financial data • Interviews with appropriate managers and employees • Administer a climate survey or attitude survey
Task Analysis • Is the process of analyzing work activities in order to identify what tasks are critical to job performance and what knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors are required to complete the tasks of the job.
Steps inTask Analysis • Select the job to be analyzed • Develop a preliminary list of critical tasks through interviews, observations, manuals etc., job descriptions, job experts, managers • Validate the preliminary list above through focus group meetings, surveys etc. • Identify the KSA’s required to do the job
KSA Identification • Knowledge – factual material that an employee needs to learn & know (e.g., marketing strategies, HR policies, employment laws, absenteeism policy) • Skills – the hands on, overt doing of things, (e.g., delegating responsibility, handling irate customers, operating a computer or other equipment)
KSA Identification • Abilities – basic abilities that new hires are typically expected to posses, but that can be developed through training (e.g., reading, reasoning, math, coordination etc.
Task Analysis Data Collection • Surveys, Interviews • How frequently is the task performed? • How important is the task in getting the job done? • How much training is needed? • What knowledge, skills, and abilities are needed to accomplish the task? • What are the conditions and standards under which the task is performed?
Individual/Person Analysis • Who needs training and what kind do they need? • determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem • Employees do not know how to perform effectively. • Perhaps they received little or no previous training or the training was ineffective.
Is training the best solution? • If employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform and the other factors are satisfactory, training is needed. • If employees have the knowledge and skill to perform but input, output, consequences, or feedback are inadequate, training may not be the best solution.
Data Collection – Person Analysis • Observe employees • Interview employees to determine current knowledge, skills, and abilities • Interview employee’s supervisor, peers • Give employees specifically designed questionnaires, or tests
Methods of Collecting Needs Assessment Data • Direct Observation • Questionnaires • Consulting subject matter experts • Review of relevant literature • Interviews • Focus groups • Tests • Company records and work samples
Steps in Needs Assessment • Identify problems, performance deficiencies or needs • Determine design of needs analysis (person, task, org. – some or all) • Establish methods of data collection and assess adv/disadv of methods • Collect data • Analyze data/determine solutions/recommendations • Provide feedback – what type of training is required? • This information is used as basis for design, objectives, development and evaluation.