Needs Assessment • Process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be.
Needs Assessment • Should also include the communities assets assessment.
Needs Assessment • Define the community • Define the target audience • Understand the community around the target audience • Demographic data of both
Needs Assessment • Perceived nutrition and health needs of the community & target audience
Needs Assessment • Health status of the community & target audience • Nutrition status of the community & target audience
Needs Assessment • Resources available in the community & target audience • Assets of the community & target audience
Epidemiology • The study of the occurrence and determinants of health events among people.
Epidemiology • Behavioral epidemiology • assesses what people do and what they avoid
Epidemiology • Nutritional epidemiology • eating behavior and how that behavior influences health status, disease morbidity and mortality
Primary Data • Collect the data your self • Qualitative • Quantitative • Use variety of methods
Secondary Data • Collected by someone else • Compiled • aggregated, summarized • Uncompiled • not aggregated
Define the Community • Workbook pp. 3-5 • Community and target audience separate • Geographic boundaries • Cultural boundaries
Define the Community • Demographic data • Workbook pp. 16-23 • target audience • community • Media survey • Workbook pp. 6-7
Health Status • Define specific enough so know how to develop the program
Health Problem • Condition-specific dimensions • How does it occur in the target audience? • Are any aspects of the health problem unique to the target audience?
Health Problem • Condition-specific dimensions • Will rate of problem change if addressed via education? • Will rate of problem change if change policy?
Health Problem • Condition-specific dimensions • Will rate of problem change if change policy? • How will people’s behavior have to change to reduce problem?
Health Problem • Condition-specific dimensions • Incidence rate: number of new cases of disease per time period
Health Problem • Condition-specific dimensions • Prevalence rate: number of existing cases of a disease at one time
Health Problem • People-specific dimensions • What is the health problem the target audience is most worried about? • Rate of health problem in that group?
Health Problem • People-specific dimensions • How do people behave that have the problem? • How do people behave that do not have the problem?
Health Problem • Gathering the information • Workbook pp. 24-27 • Other WEB sites • Leading causes of death and disability
Health Problem • Gathering the information • Compare across communities • Compare county or city to state or national level • What else collect?
Nutritional Status • Indicators of nutritional status, measures of food consumption & dietary habits, availability of different foods, food purchasing habits
Nutritional Status • Gathering the information • Workbook pp. 28-42 • What might this include?
Nutrition Monitoring • NHANES III • 1988-94 • CDC, HHS • 2 mo & older • FFQ & one 24-hr food recall • SES
Nutrition Monitoring • NHANES III • biochemical analysis of blood and urine • physical exam • anthropometrics • bp, bone density, health
Nutrition Monitoring • CSFII • 1994-96 • USDA • 1-day & 3-day food records • 24-hr food recall
Nutrition Monitoring • DHKS • 1994-96 • USDA • linked to CSFII • knowledge, attitudes, behavior
Monitoring systems - gather data at frequent intervals and use comparable methods and procedures
Surveillance systems - continuously collect data, use very simple procedures and all use same tools and procedures
BRFSS • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System • random digit telephone • population based • some nutrition questions
PNSS • Pregnancy Surveillance System • majority is WIC data • program based • trends in prevalence of prenatal and early infancy
PedNSS • Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System • WIC, EPSDT & Head Start • program based • monitors nutritional status of children in public funded
YRBS • Youth Risk Behavior Survey • monitoring system • asks a few nutrition questions
EPSDT • Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment
Research Literature • Compiled • NHANES, CSFII, & DHKS analyzed and published • Other studies
County & State Health Dept. • Vital statistics • State results of BRFSS, YRBS • Other program data - WIC, EFNEP, Early Start
Community Resources • Identify other organizations • Human resources • Financial resources • Community strengths
Community Resources • Policies and practices of other organizations • Who can be lead organization? • Availability of other nutrition services
Possible Steps in Needs Assessment • Create a time line • Call people in the community • Ensure confidentiality • Systemize the data gathering process
Formative Evaluation • Evaluation to assist in shaping the program, brochure, & to aid planning • Needs assessment, planning, pretesting • Quality assurance
Pretesting • Assess comprehension • Assess attention & recall • Id strong & weak points • Gauging sensitive or controversial elements • Test acceptance of messages for cultural appropriateness
Needs Assessment • Questions?