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Bacterial Transformation. Green Fluorescent Protein. What is Transformation?. Change… In molecular biology, change in which genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by incorporation of foreign DNA. Applications.

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bacterial transformation

Bacterial Transformation

Green Fluorescent Protein

what is transformation
What is Transformation?
  • Change…
  • In molecular biology, change in which genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by incorporation of foreign DNA
  • Genes coding for traits such as disease or pest resistance may be transformed into plants
  • Gene therapy replaces defective genes in a cell with functional copies
  • Bacteria can be transformed with a gene for human hormone like insulin so it can be produced in mass quantities
organism to be transformed e coli
Organism to be Transformed: E. coli
  • E. coli bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human gut
  • MM294 is a “K-12” strain that does not colonize the gut
  • Proper decontamination is required nevertheless
gene to insert green fluorescent protein
Gene to Insert:Green Fluorescent Protein
  • Comes from bioluminescent jellyfish -Aequorea victoria
  • GFP is widely used as a marker to determine if transformation is effective
gene to insert antibiotic resistance
Gene to Insert:Antibiotic Resistance
  • Beta-lactamase which provides resistance to ampicillin
  • Inactivates ampicillin and allows bacterial growth
  • Also used as a marker
  • A plasmid is a small piece of circular DNA in bacteria in addition to bacterial chromosome
  • Typically contain genes for traits beneficial for survival such as antibiotic resistance
  • In nature, bacteria transfer these plasmids back and forth
  • Acts as a vector – a gene taxi to get new DNA into bacteria
constructing a plasmid
Constructing a Plasmid
  • Specific fragments of DNA may be isolated, cut into discrete pieces by the action of restriction enzymes, and rejoined by the action of DNA ligase




E. coli host cell

Transformed Bacteria

transformation methods
Transformation Methods

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  • Naturally occurring soil bacteria that causes Crown Gall disease
  • Ability to infect a plant cell and transfer its DNA
  • Disease causing genes removed and gene of interest inserted
transformation methods1
Transformation Methods


  • “Gene gun”
  • DNA stuck to microscopic gold or tungsten particles
  • Blast of pressurized helium shoots DNA into plant tissue, some makes it through plant cell walls and membranes and into the nucleus
transformation methods2
Transformation Methods

Additional Techniques

  • Electroporation
  • Heat Shock
steps in this lab
Steps in This Lab
  • We will be using a plasmid construct that already contains our gene of interest
  • Prepare cells to allow transfer of DNA through membrane
      • Add ++ ions
      • Heat shock
  • Provide nutrients and allow cells to express newly inserted genes
  • Grow transformed cells on agarose plates to isolate transformants