block 1 strategy and policy l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Advanced Management Development Programme PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Advanced Management Development Programme

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 85

Advanced Management Development Programme - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 429 Views
  • Uploaded on

Block 1 Strategy and Policy. Advanced Management Development Programme. Structure of the Programme. Block 1: Strategic Management Module 1: Strategic Management Module 2: Knowledge Management Module 3: Policy Management & Public Accountability Block 2: Mastering Management

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Advanced Management Development Programme


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
structure of the programme
Structure of the Programme
  • Block 1: Strategic Management
    • Module 1: Strategic Management
    • Module 2: Knowledge Management
    • Module 3: Policy Management & Public Accountability
  • Block 2: Mastering Management
    • Module 4: Public Financial Management
    • Module 5: Project Management
    • Module 6: Enhancing Service Delivery
  • Block 3
    • Module 7: Results Through Leadership
    • Module 8: People & Performance Management
    • Module 9: Completing the Public Service Puzzle
course description
Course Description
  • SAQA Information
    • NQF level: 6
    • Credit value: 92 (Blocks 1,2 & 3)
assessment
Assessment
  • Class Attendance - 10%
  • Group Task - 20 %
  • Course Reading Material - 10 %
  • Individual Assignment (Portfolio of Evidence) - 60 %
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

After completing this module you should be able to:

  • relate what Strategic Management involves to other colleagues in their departments;
  • apply the phases of Strategic Management;
  • apply the 8 basic steps of planning;
  • apply the logical framework approach for participation; and
  • apply the techniques of strategy formulation, evaluation and monitoring.
basics strategy
Basics: Strategy

Q - What is strategy?

A - It’s as easy as “ABC...”

strategy creating public value is as easy as a b c
Strategy: Creating “public value” is as easy as A-B-C...

Vision – Mission - Goals

Where you Are

Where do you

want to Be

Strategy development

Strategy implementation

Monitor &

Evaluate

SWOT

“PEST”

Desired future

Resource plans

Financial plans

Infrastructure plans

How to get there

(Course to follow)

Bryson & Alston

Not the only “model” – but the easiest to understand!

testing understanding
Testing understanding
  • In your groups, select an organisation
  • Using the ABC model of strategy formulation, how would you apply the three stages to this organisation
what is management
What is “Management?”

A quick refresher

The “4 functions” model

  • Planning
  • Organising
  • Leading
  • Controlling
the perfect marriage
The perfect marriage?

Strategy

Management

Easy as “ABC”

  • Where Are you
  • Where do you want to Be
  • The Course to follow
  • The “4 functions” model
  • Planning
  • Organising
  • Leading
  • Controlling

Henceforth you shall be known as “Strategic Management”

testing understanding14
Testing understanding

In the class, we will discuss the marriage and how it works

what is strategic management
What is Strategic Management?
  • Changing Environment:
    • Continuous and rapid environmental change.
    • Responsive and flexible
    • Demands of customers
  • Rooted (but very much beyond) budgets and plans.
  • Positioning the organisation within organisation
  • Assess environment e.g. SWOT, Force Field Analysis, Root Cause Analysis, Critical Path Analysis etc.
strategic management is
Strategic Management is…
  • Formulating a long-term view (vision and mission)
  • Focused towards planning (setting objectives) and implementing programmes and projects that get you there
  • Using objectives as measurement to establish if the result attained the desired outcome;
  • An iterative process;
  • Continuous evaluation
introduction and definition the strategic management process
Introduction and Definition…The strategic management process

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

Planning Implementation Evaluation

  • Planning the
  • planning process:
  • Process plan
  • Implementing
  • the planning
  • Process
  • Evaluating the
  • planning process
  • through continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
  • Planning the
  • Implementation
  • Process:
  • Implementation
  • Strategy
  • Implementing the
  • implementation
  • process
  • Evaluating the
  • implementation
  • process through
  • continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
  • Planning the
  • evaluation process:
  • Performance
  • Assessment
  • Systems, etc.
  • Implementing the
  • evaluation process
  • Evaluating the
  • evaluation process
  • through continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
in another way
In another way...

Developing a strategic vision and business mission

Setting objectives

Crafting a strategy to achieve those objectives

Improve / change

Improve / change

Review

Revise

Revise

Implemen-

tation

Planning

Evaluate

Implement and execute the strategy

Evaluate performance new development corrective action

definition
Definition…
  • The planning (formulation)
  • implementation
  • and evaluation
  • of specific actions
  • that will enable an organisation to achieve its set
  • goals and objectives.
testing understanding22
Testing understanding

Imagine you are required to conduct an in-house training session at your Department.

Discuss how you would explain to the learners what Strategic Management is.

The objective is to be able to relate to others in simple terms what is involved in the process

introduction and definition the strategic management process23
Introduction and Definition…The strategic management process

Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

Planning Implementation Evaluation

  • Planning the
  • planning process:
  • Process plan
  • Implementing
  • the planning
  • Process
  • Evaluating the
  • planning process
  • through continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
  • Planning the
  • Implementation
  • Process:
  • Implementation
  • Strategy
  • Implementing the
  • implementation
  • process
  • Evaluating the
  • implementation
  • process through
  • continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
  • Planning the
  • evaluation process:
  • Performance
  • Assessment
  • Systems, etc.
  • Implementing the
  • evaluation process
  • Evaluating the
  • evaluation process
  • through continuing
  • monitoring and end-
  • of phase evaluation
planning and strategy formulation
Planning and Strategy Formulation

Strategy

Formulation

Strategic

Vision

Strategic

Mission

and

Purpose

Strategic

Goals,

objectives

and

activities

  • Planning involves analysis of the status quo
    • Environmental Scoping
    • SWOT
  • Strategy formulation is a sub-activity of planning
example strategic plan npa
Example strategic Plan: NPA

Strategy

Formulation

Strategic

Mission

and

Purpose

Strategic

Goals,

objectives

and

activities

Strategic

Vision

Justice in our society, so that people can live in freedom and security

To provide an effective prosecution service which is prompt, vigorous and fearless in public interest, guided by the Constitution and Bill of Rights where we are all treated with humanity and sensitivity

  • Strategic Outcome Perspective
  • Customer Perspective
  • Internal Business Process Perspective
  • Financial Perspective
  • Growth and Learning Perspective
  • Strategic Outcomes
  • Priorities
  • Action Plans
planning and strategy formulation26
Planning and Strategy Formulation…

Structure follows Process,which follows Strategy.

Planning is a process of deciding in advance where we want to get to and how to get there …

planning and strategy formulation27
Planning and Strategy Formulation…

Programmes

Projects,

sub- projects

and activities

Organisational

strategies

why is planning important
Why is Planning Important?
  • Planning helps to:
    • identify goals clearly;
    • ensure that we all understand our goal and what we need to do to reach it;
    • see in advance those things that can help or hinder us in achieving our goal;
    • be accountable for what we do;
    • decide how best to use our resources;
  • Planning makes us work in a goal-oriented way rather than an ad-hoc way.
  • Planning lays the basis for us to assess and evaluate our achievements effectively.
environmental scanning
Environmental Scanning
  • examine the factors in the external and internal environment
  • identify the impact of these factors on strategic issues relating to the organisation.
  • future orientated and is predictive in nature.
  • take cognisance of opportunities and threats.
recap a b c
Recap: A-B-C...

Vision – Mission - Goals

Where you Are

Where do you

want to Be

Strategy development

Strategy implementation

Monitor &

Evaluate

SWOT

“PEST”

Desired future

Resource plans

Financial plans

Infrastructure plans

How to get there

(Course to follow)

Bryson & Alston

process for environmental scanning sometimes called the pest
Process for Environmental Scanning(sometimes called the “PEST* ”)
  • Step 1: Selecting a time frame
  • Step 2: Choosing trend categories for analysis
  • Step 3: Collecting information
  • Step 4: Defining trends
  • Step 5: Determining possible impact of the trend on the department
  • Step 6: What consequences or planning issues result from the trend’s impact on the departments
  • Step 7: Prioritising impact and consequences
          • Likelihood
          • Impact
          • Time
  • Step 8: Documenting and reporting back

*Political, Economic, Social, Technological analysis

environmental scan
Environmental Scan…

The “environment” includes the following:

  • the natural environment;
  • the intellectual environment;
  • the social environment;
  • the economic environment;
  • the political environment;
  • the policy/ legal environment;
  • the institutional environment;
  • the technological environment.
swot analysis
SWOT Analysis…
  • The SWOT analysis goes hand in hand with environmental analysis.
  • Identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats surrounding the organisation.
  • A rule of thumb indicates that:
    • strengths and weaknesses typically occur within an organisation, and
    • opportunities and threats typically occur outside the organisation.
slide34

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

SWOT…

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

  • Opportunities for change from the present situation to a preferred situation.
  • Problems or deficiencies which must be resolved.
  • Obstacles to performance that must be eliminated.
  • Can the organization on this level do something about it?
  • Are there any serious consequences if not addressed?
  • What practical alternatives can be generated to address these problems? Goals.
  • What actions with existing staff can be taken in the short term?
  • What specific steps can be taken? Tasks.
slide35
SWOT…
  • Alternatives to consider:
    • Opportunities can be exploited.
    • Threats can be countered.
    • Strengths can be optimised.
    • Weak points must not be exposed to the threats.
remember
Remember…
  • Planning is future-oriented.
    • future activities aimed at the future achievement of specific objectives.
    • the planner should possess some vision of the future.
  • Planning is an intellectual activity.
    • requires insight, creativity and rational logical thinking.
  • Planning is action-oriented.
    • not an end in itself, but a means to an end.
    • result is a plan of action that has to be put into operation…
  • “plan your work and work your plan”
remember37
Remember…
  • Planning is a systematic process,
    • series of consecutive and interrelated steps.
  • Identify alternative ways of achieving objectives and a choose among alternatives.
    • Decision-making is an integral part of the planning process.
    • Questions to be asked are the following:
      • What are the objectives?
      • What should be done to achieve them?
      • When should this be done?
      • By whom?
      • Where?
      • How?
      • With what resources?
      • What variables play a role?
the strategy process
The strategy process
  • The choices made about objectives and about the approach you will use to achieve these objectives.
    • careful thought to how best to achieve what you want.
  • Strategy is not just a plan on paper – it is what you do and how you use your resources to do it.
  • Assess what you did, not what you said you would do.
  • Planned and used strategy often differs
challenges facing service organisations
Challenges facing Service Organisations
  • Goals
    • Complex, change society, difficult to specify and measure or have different meanings
  • Values
    • Different/conflicting values and expectations
  • Stakeholders
    • Different needs, interests and concerns
  • Difficulties in measuring achievements
    • Means vs ends
  • Connection between effectiveness and resources
    • Weak connections – not paid for services by clients
  • Success
    • Interdependence
problems arising from ineffective planning
Problems Arising from Ineffective Planning
  • Plans not understood the same way - confusion and conflict during implementation.
  • Different perceptions on what successful achievement means.
  • Lack of agreement about beneficiaries from our work.
  • Constant change - plans no longer seem relevant.
  • Difficulties due to complexity of goals and objectives.
  • Not being able to say what we have achieved – only what we have done.
  • Different understandings of why we adopt specific approaches.
developing plans to assist in service delivery
Developing plans to assist in service delivery
  • Planning Approach
  • The 8 basic planning steps – (see next session)
  • Ensuring participation through the logical framework approach
planning approach
Planning Approach
  • Participative
  • Systematic
  • Strategic
  • Include agreement on evaluation of progress and achievements.
  • Commitment from everyone
  • Planning and evaluation is a cycle of learning and improvement, (not a straight line from A to B!)
testing understanding43
Testing understanding

Discuss how you would ensure that planning is effective in a practical context.

Relate your answer to your Departmental context.

steps in planning
Steps in planning
  • Basic planning PROCESS
  • Can used for any kind of planning:
    • Developing strategy
    • Programme planning
    • Project planning
  • Should be used as part of the cycle of planning – enables ongoing learning and improvement.
8 basic planning steps
8 Basic Planning Steps

Step 1: Preparing to plan

Step 2: Analyse the situation and needs.

Step 3: Prioritise and select the Goal and Purpose.

Step 4: Develop clear specific objectives.

Step 5: Identify alternative strategies and select the most effective strategy.

Step 6: Plan Implementation (Implementation Strategy)

Step 7: Plan for evaluation (Assessment Systems)

Step 8: Summarise your plan.

step 1 preparing to plan
Step 1: Preparing to plan

Ensuring commitment and developing the process plan.

  • Planning is part of the “real work itself”.
  • Planning takes up time, energy and other resources.
  • Planning lays the basis for effective ongoing thinking, action and achievement.
  • Involvement and participation of all stakeholders are of vital importance to effective planning processes.
  • Many public sector organisations underestimate the amount of time and commitment required for effective planning.
step 2 analyse the situation and needs
Step 2: Analyse the situation and needs
  • Collecting and analysing information to decide on a goal and a purpose that is:
    • Relevant to your target community or the service to be delivered;
    • Realistic in terms of what is possible and likely to make a difference; and
    • The most effective and appropriate contribution given the current situation you want to change.
  • Lays the basis for the rest of the planning process:
    • build a deeper understanding of the problem and the situation.
    • shared understanding, more effective decisions and a commitment to strategicaction.
step 2 analyse the situation and needs cont
Step 2: Analyse the situation and needs (cont.)
  • Forms the basis for your decisions in all the later steps.
  • Make decisions when choosing the following:
  • Goal: The changed situation in society your org aims to contribute to achieving.
  • Purpose: The result the org is expected to achieve.
  • Specific Objectives: Specific results that must be achieved to achieve the purpose. Should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timeous (SMART).
  • Activities: The actions that must be taken – what must be done, by whom and by when.
step 3 prioritise and select the goal and purpose
Step 3: Prioritise and select the Goal and Purpose
  • Important to decide on the goal because:
    • Tells what change you hope to contribute to bringing about.
    • Is a clear statement of the future situation.
    • Is longer-term aims the org contribute to bring about.
    • Tells us why we do what we do.
    • Is the final basis on which to evaluate what have been achieved.
    • Is the vision that guide everything else you do.
  • All further programmes/project planning must be relevant to helping bring this about.
step 3 prioritise and select the goal and purpose cont
Step 3: Prioritise and select the Goal and Purpose (Cont)

Once we know what the goal is, we need to decide on the purpose of the organisation.

  • Why do we exist and what contribution will we make to achieving the goal?
  • A clear statement of what you undertake to achieve.
  • Something you can realistically achieve as a result of your work.

Agreeing on a purpose is making a clear commitment to achieving this result.

step 4 develop clear specific objectives
Step 4: Develop clear specific objectives.

Objectives:

  • Are concrete results you need to achieve in order to reach the purpose.
  • Should be as clear and specific as possible.
  • Should state the result you aim to achieve, not what you will do to achieve it – helps to focus on what the effect of your work should be, not only on your activities.
  • Should be more specific and concrete than your purpose and should be relevant to achieving your purpose.
step 5 identify and select alternative strategies
Step 5: Identify and select alternative strategies
  • Find the best way of achieving your objectives.
  • Avoids assuming there is a right way of getting something done
  • Find new and more effective ways of doing things – questions status quo.
  • Start planning to implement them by developing activityplans.
selecting alternatives criteria
Selecting Alternatives: Criteria
  • Most useful
  • Practical
  • Commitment
  • Relevant and appropriate
  • Affordable
  • Time frame – realistic
  • Support
  • Long-term impact
  • Sustainable
step 6 plan implementation
Step 6: Plan Implementation
  • Detailed planning about how you will implement the strategies decided on.
  • Decide on the most effective strategy to achieve each objective:
    • What major activities will be needed to implement each strategy?
    • Who will be responsible?
    • By when should activities by completed? What deadlines should be set?
    • What specific resources will be needed for the activities required to achieve each strategy?
step 7 plan for evaluation
Step 7: Plan for evaluation
  • Planning how you will evaluate your progress and what has been successfully achieved
  • Guide the implementation with clear agreements about what successful achievement means.
  • Helps to clarify the plans by ensuring everyone understands what you intend to achieve.
  • Ensures a clear and agreed upon basis for assessing what was actually achieved and progress along the way.

Review

step 8 summarise your plan
Step 8: Summarise your plan

Summarise your plan throughout the process circulating it to everyone along after each step

Clear record of decisions at each step, can be used in the next step.

Useful record of discussions that can be used to:

  • Check thinking and whether it makes sense
  • Keep a clear record of decisions
  • Guide implementation
  • Monitor external conditions and make adjustments
  • Explain planning to donors or others
  • Check previous thinking.
recap learning outcomes
Recap - Learning Outcomes

After completing module 1 you should be able to:

  • relate what Strategic Management involves to other colleagues in their departments;
  • apply the phases of Strategic Management;
  • apply the 8 basic steps of planning;
  • apply the logical framework approach for participation; and
  • apply the techniques of strategy formulation, evaluation and monitoring.

Can you?

testing understanding64
Testing understanding

Using the PGDS, select one priority and complete a relevant logframe, indicating how it is applied

ensuring effective participation
Ensuring Effective Participation

Step 1: Informing.

Step 2: Educating – (getting to realistic possibilities).

Step 3: Consultation.

Step 4: Negotiation and prioritisation – (scheduling, determining quality and other deliverables).

Step 5: Feedback and continuous participation.

using the logical framework approach to get participation
Using the Logical Framework Approach to get Participation
  • This approach has been suggested because:
    • it is systematic;
    • it creates a transparent basis for the processes of planning and evaluation; and
    • It enables effective participation in decision-making.
  • Who should be involved?
  • Why participation important?
  • Possible kinds of involvement.
  • Stakeholders.
  • Stakeholder analysis.
slide69

Enabling effective communications with this Stakeholder

Stakeholder Management/Engagement/Communications Plan

Use an influence/power matrix – with care!

testing understanding72
Testing understanding

Complete a stakeholder analysis

Where/when/why would you use the logical framework?

Where/when/why would you do a stakeholder analysis?

systematic planning
Systematic Planning
  • Reach agreements with all stakeholders in four areas:
    • What you must achieve and how
    • What important conditions will have to exist for you to be successful.
    • What criteria or indicators you will use to evaluate your work.
    • Agreeing where, how and from whom you will get the information you will need to evaluate your work.
testing understanding76
Testing understanding

Discuss why creativity techniques are advantageous.

Attempt to identify a number of creative or innovative solutions that your department has recently applied to problem-solving.

Assess, in your opinion, the reasons for their success (and/or failure).

implementation
Implementation
  • Resource application process.
  • Often, planning occurs effectively but implementation is dysfunctional.
  • Base line requirements for implementation to succeed:
    • The strategic management process must be functional.
    • All stakeholders should be involved in the implementation process.
    • All stakeholders must actively commit to the implementation process.
    • All managers should be skilled in the aspects associated with resource administration, general management, and project management.
implementation78
Implementation…

Phase 1

Strategic Planning

Planning/ formulation

of strategies

Phase 2

Strategic

Implementation

Implementation

of strategies

  • Where:
  • Programmes and
  • subsequently
  • projects are
  • operationalised.
  • Resources are
  • aligned and
  • scheduled to
  • operationalise
  • strategies.
implementation79
Implementation…
  • Implementation
  • Management
  • Planning the implementation
  • process: Implementation
  • Strategy.
  • Implementing the
  • Implementation process.
  • Evaluating the
  • implementation process
  • through continuing
  • monitoring and end-of
  • phase evaluation.
  • Where:
  • Implementing the implementation process
  • involves:
  • Programme identification –
  • resource allocation.
  • Programmes divided into
  • projects – resource allocation.
  • Projects divided into
  • sub-projects – resource allocation.
  • Sub-projects divided into tasks.
  • Where:
  • Projects and sub-projects contain:
  • a preparation phase
  • an implementation phase
  • an evaluation phase
evaluation and monitoring
Evaluation and Monitoring
  • Each phase includes sub-evaluation and monitoring moments.
  • The final phase requires an evaluation and measurement of outputs and outcomes.
  • Information gathered in this phase will be utilised to adopt new strategies or to adapt existing ones.
  • Evaluation occurs on two levels:
    • Organisational – Performance Management Systems, etc.
    • Functional – Overall (organisational) performance is assessed.
slide81
Activity 1.5

Individual Task

recap learning outcomes84
Recap - Learning Outcomes

After completing module 1 you should be able to:

  • relate what Strategic Management involves to other colleagues in their departments;
  • apply the phases of Strategic Management;
  • apply the 8 basic steps of planning;
  • apply the logical framework approach for participation; and
  • apply the techniques of strategy formulation, evaluation and monitoring.

Can you?