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James & Tammy Parsons
Metro Nashville Public Schools
Students generally learn better in a standards-based environment because everybody’s working towards the same goal.
Believe some students are naturally smarter than others.
Content subject matter varies with different groups of students.
Assessments compare what students know to what other students know.
Believe virtually all students can “get smart” through effort.
Content subject matter is the same for all groups of students.
Assessments compare what students know to standards and benchmarks.Differences Between Standards-Based and Norm-Referenced Systems
No objective criteria to deploy resources – students who need the most often get the least.
Professional development episodic – one-time workshops.
Resources are deployed as needed for all students to meet standards – students who need more get more.
Professional development focuses on improving instruction so all students meet standards.Differences Between Standards-Based and Norm-Referenced Systems
These are the same across all grades.1. Process2. Number & Operations3. Algebra4. Geometry & Measurement5. Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics
Other website resources:
Level 1 Recall and Reproduction
Level 2 Skills & Concepts
Level 3 Strategic Thinking
Level 4 Extended Thinking
Requires simple recall of such information as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure. A student answering a Level 1 item either knows the answer or does not.
Involves some mental skills, concepts, or processing beyond habitual response. Students must make some decisions about how to approach a problem or activity. Keywords distinguishing a Level 2 item include classify, organize, observe, estimate, collect data, and compare data.
Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and thinking at a higher level than the previous two levels. The complexity results because the multi-step task requires more demanding reasoning.
An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response they give would most likely be a Level 3.
Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking, most likely over an extended time. Cognitive demands are high, and students are required to make connections both within and among subject domains.
The Depth of Knowledge is NOTdetermined by the verb, but the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking (cognitive demand) required.
Level 3-Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships of the areas of squares and triangles. (requires deep understanding of area and a determination of how best to represent it)
Level 2-Describe the difference between squares and triangles. (requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two types of figures)
Level 1-Describe two attributes of a square. (simple recall)
• Depth of Knowledge is a scale of cognitive demand.
• DOK requires looking at the assessment item/standard-not student work-in order to determine the level. DOK is about the item/standard-not the student.
• The context of the assessment item/standard must be considered to determine the DOK-not just a look at what verb was chosen.
Click on Teacher
What I Know
What I Want To Know
What I Have Learned
Standards-based education is a process for planning, delivering, monitoring and improving academic programs in which clearly defined academic content standards provide the basis for content in instruction and assessment.
Transforming Instruction Through Standards
More “coverage” yields less “higher order” cognition
Short-term memorizationTraditional vs. Transformative
Socratic, discovery methods
Begins with the end in mind
Emphasis on maintaining timeline, underachievers separated
Rarely reaches the endTraditional vs. Transformative
Making Standards User Friendly
A Melting Pot Approach
A Melting Pot Approach
What is it about this activity that relates to the idea of a melting pot?