Chapter 10. Industrial Revolution and the Monroe Doctrine. Growth of Industry. The Industrial Revolution began in the mid-1700’s in Britain. It was a period during which machinery and technology changed how people worked and produced goods.
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Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution and the Monroe Doctrine
Growth of Industry • The Industrial Revolution began in the mid-1700’s in Britain. It was a period during which machinery and technology changed how people worked and produced goods. • The Industrial Revolution took hold in the U.S. in New England around 1800. • Rivers and streams provided water- power to run machinery in factories.
New England was near needed resources, such as coal and iron from Pennsylvania and therefore had an advantage. • New England shipped cotton from southern states and sent the finished cloth to markets throughout the nation. • Capitalism played a large part in the development of different industries. People put up capital, or their own money, for a new business in the hopes to make a profit, too.
With the Growth of industry came free enterprise. People are open to buy, sell, or produce anything of their choosing as well as work wherever they want. Competition, profit, private property, and economic freedom are all aspects of a free enterprise. • New England had workers to handle the growth of industry. • The Industrial Revolution could not have taken place without the invention of new machines and new technology or the scientific discoveries that made them work easier.
Britain created machinery and methods that changed the textile industry with inventions such as the spinning jenny, the water frame, and the power loom. • Most mills were built near rivers because the new machinery ran on water-power. • In 1785 the first steam engine provided power for a cotton mill.
In the United States, many new inventions were created. • In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. One worker using the machine could clean cotton as fast as 50 people working by hand. • The patent law was passed in 1790 protected the rights of people who created inventions. A patent gives the inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time.
New England Factories • The factory system, or bringing manufacturing steps together under one roof, began here. This was an important part of the Industrial Revolution because it changed the way goods were made and increased efficiency. • The Technology of making inter-changeable parts made it possible to produce many types of goods in large quantities.
It also reduced the cost of manufacturing goods. In 1798 Eli Whitney devised this method to make 10,000 rifles in two years for the United states government. He was able to make huge quantities of identical pieces that could replace one another
Agriculture expands • In the 1820’s, more the 65 percent of Americans were farmers. • In the Northeast farms were small and produce was sold locally. • In the South, cotton production greatly increased with the development of the textile industry of New England and Europe.
Enslaved workers planted, tended, and picked the cotton. • With the invention of the cotton gin, cotton could be cleaned faster and cheaper than by hand, so farmers raised larger crops. • Between 1790 and 1820, cotton production went from 3000 to 300000 bales a year.
Economic Independence • To help their businesses grow many merchants, farmers, and shopkeepers put some of the money they earned back into their businesses to try and make larger profits. • In 1816 Congress established the Second Bank of the United States. It had the power to establish a national currency and to make large loans. It helped strengthen the economic independence of the nation.
As a result of the growth of factories cities and towns began to grow. Many developed along rivers and streams because of water-power. Cities like New York, Boston, and Baltimore became centers of commerce and trade. • Cities and towns looked nothing like they do today. Buildings were wood or brick. Streets were unpaved. Animals roamed freely.
Because there were no sewers, the danger of disease such as cholera and yellow fever grew. • Fires could spread easily and could be disastrous. • Cities offered many types of shops, jobs, a steady income, and cultural opportunities. • Many people left their farms and moved to the cities for the city life.
Moving West • By 1820 the population had doubled reaching to the about 10 million. Almost 2 million lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. • Without a proper road system travel through the west was difficult. The first national road was built between Maryland and Ohio in the mid 1800’s
Steam boats provided a faster means or river travel. In 1807 Robert Fulton built the Clermont, a steamboat with a newly designed powerful engine. • The 150 mile trip from New York was shortened from 4 days to 32 hours. • Steamboats improved the transportation of people and goods.
Canals • The Erie canal was built by a new York business and government group. The artificial water way was used to connect New York city with the great Lakes region. • The canal was 363-miles long and took thousands of workers to build. • As a result of the success of the Erie Canal, by 1850 the United States had more than 3,600 miles of Canals. These Canals helped unite the country, tying the East and West together.
Western Settlement • After the war of 1812 five new Western States were admitted into the United States: Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama and Missouri. • Most people who settled the west went with others from their home communities. Indiana, for example, was settled mostly by people from Kentucky.