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Chapter 2 Production Possibilities and Opportunity Cost

Chapter 2 Production Possibilities and Opportunity Cost

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Chapter 2 Production Possibilities and Opportunity Cost

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  1. Chapter 2Production Possibilities and Opportunity Cost • Key Concepts • Summary • Practice Quiz • Internet Exercises ©2000 South-Western College Publishing

  2. In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles: Why are so few rock stars or movie stars in your classes? Why would you spend an extra hour reading this text, rather than going to a movie or sleeping? Why are investment and economic growth so important?

  3. What are the three Fundamental Economic Questions? What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? * Return to previous slide while in slide show

  4. What isOpportunity Cost? The best alternative sacrificed for a chosen alternative

  5. What Opportunity Cost am I experiencing now? The most money that you could be making if you were somewhere else instead of studying these slides

  6. Can Opportunity Cost be something other than money? That most desired activity that you are presently giving up is considered an opportunity cost Yes!

  7. What isMarginal Analysis? An examination of the effects of additions to or subtractions from a current situation

  8. What is an example of Marginal Analysis? When your benefit of studying these slides exceeds the opportunity cost, you will spend time studying these slides

  9. What is a Production Possibilities Curve? A curve that shows the maximum combinations of two outputs that an economy can produce, given its available resources and technology

  10. What is Technology? The body of knowledge and skills applied to how goods are produced

  11. Production Possibilities Curve A Efficient Unattainable Military Goods Inefficient B Consumer Goods

  12. What three assumptions underlie the Productions Possibilities Curve Model? • Fixed resources • Fully employed resources • Technology unchanged

  13. What is the conclusion of the Production Possibilities Curve? Scarcity limits an economy to points on or below its production possibilities curve

  14. What is the Law of Increasing Opportunity Costs? The principle that the opportunity cost increases as production of one output expands

  15. What isEconomic Growth? The ability of an economy to produce greater levels of output, represented by an outward shift of its production possibilities curve

  16. Technological Advance Computers A Pizzas

  17. What happens when a country decides not to invest in new technology? Everything else being equal, the country will not grow

  18. What is Investment? The accumulation of capital, such as factories, machines, and inventories, that is used to produce goods and services

  19. What is the Opportunity Cost of investment? The consumer goods that could have been purchased with the money spent for plants and other capital

  20. What does an increase in investments make possible in the future? Economic growth and more goods and services

  21. What conclusion can we make about investments? A nation can accelerate growth by increasing production of capital goods in excess of the capital being worn out

  22. Key Concepts

  23. What are the three Fundamental Economic Questions? • What is Opportunity Cost? • Can Opportunity Cost be something other than money? • What is Marginal Analysis? • What is a Production Possibilities Curve? • What three assumptions underlie the Productions Possibilities Curve Model?

  24. What is the conclusion of the Production Possibilities Curve? • What is the Opportunity Cost of investment? • What does an increase in investments make possible in the future? • What conclusion can we make about investments?

  25. Summary

  26. Thee fundamental economic questions facing any economy are What, How, and For Whom to produce goods. The What question asks exactly which goods are to be produced and in what quantities. The How question requires society to decide the resource mix used to produce goods. The For Whom problem concerns the division of output among society’s citizens.

  27. Opportunity cost is the best alternative foregone for a chosen option. This means no decision can be made without cost.

  28. Opportunity Cost Choice Scarcity

  29. Marginal analysis examines the impact of changes from a current situation and is a technique used extensively in economics. The basic approach is to compare the additional benefits of a change with the additional cost of the change.

  30. A production possibilities curve illustrates an economy’s capacity to produce goods, subject to the constraint of scarcity. The production possibilities curve is a graph of the maximum possible combinations of two outputs that can be produced in a given period of time, subject to three conditions:

  31. (1) All resources are fully employed (2) The resource base is not allowed to vary during the time period. (3) Technology, which is the body of knowledge applied to the production of goods, remains constant.

  32. Inefficient production occurs at any point inside the production possibilities curve. All points along the curve are efficient points because each point represents a maximum output possibility.

  33. Production Possibilities Curve A Efficient Unattainable Military Goods Inefficient B Consumer Goods

  34. The law of increasing opportunity costs states that the opportunity cost increases as the production of an output expands. The explanation for the law of increasing opportunity costs is that the suitability of resources declines sharply as greater amounts are transferred from producing one output to producing another output.

  35. Investment means that an economy is producing and accumulating capital. Investment consists of factories, machines, and inventories (capital) produced in the present that are used to shift the production possibilities curve outward in the future.

  36. Economic growth is represented by the production possibilities curve shifting outward as the result of an increase in resources or an advance in technology.

  37. Technological Advance B Computers A Pizzas

  38. Economic growth Technological advance

  39. Chapter 2 Quiz ©2000 South-Western College Publishing

  40. 1. Which of the following decisions must be made by all economies? a. How much to produce? When to produce? How much does it cost? b. What is the price? Who will produce it? Who will consume it? c. What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? d. none of the above. C. Regardless of the size of wealth of a nation, it must choose a system to answer these three basic questions

  41. 2. A student who has one evening in which to prepare for two exams on the following day has the following two alternatives: Possibility Score in Economics Score in Accounting A 95 80 B 80 90

  42. Possibility Score in Economics Score in Accounting A 95 80 B 80 90 The opportunity cost of receiving 90, rather than 80, on the accounting exam is represented by how many points on the economic exam? a. 15 points. b. 80 points. c. 90 points. d. 10 points. A. By spending more time studying for accounting and therefore spending less time studying for the economics exam, 15 points on the economics exam are given up.

  43. 3. Opportunity cost is the a. purchase price of a good or service. b. value of leisure time plus out-of-pocket costs. c. best option given up as a result of choosing an alternative. d. Undesirable sacrifice required to purchase a good. C. Opportunity cost is that which is given up in the best alternative, not that which is paid in money for the good bought.

  44. Production Possibilities Curve A Efficient Unattainable Military Goods Inefficient B Consumer Goods

  45. 4. On a production possibilities curve, the opportunity cost of good X in terms of good Y is represented by a. the distance to the curve from the vertical axis. b. the distance to the curve from the horizontal axis. c. the movement along the curve. d. all of the above. C. To have more units of good X a person will have to give up units of good Y as represented on the horizontal axis.

  46. 5. A farmer is deciding whether or not to add fertilizer to his or her crops. If the farmer adds 1 pound of fertilizer per acre, the value of the resulting crops rises from $80 to $100 per acre. According to marginal analysis, the farmer should add fertilizer if it costs less than a. $12.50 per pound. b. $20 per pound. c. $80 per pound. d. $100 per pound. b. As long as the fertilizer costs less than $20 per acre, the farmer will gain more by fertilizing then he or she will lose by the expense of the fertilizer.

  47. 6. On a production possibilities curve, the opportunity cost of good X in terms of good Y is a production possibilities curve; a change from economic inefficiency to economic efficiency is obtained by a. movement along the curve. b. movement from a point outside the curve to a point on the curve. c. movement from a point inside the curve to a point on the curve. d. a change in the slope of the curve. C. All points on the production possibilities curve represents combinations of both goods while operating at the most efficient level possible.

  48. 7. Any point inside the production possibilities curve is a (an) a. efficient point. b. nonfeasible point. c. inefficient point. d. maximum output combination. C. While operating within the boundaries of the production possibilities curve, more of both goods can be attained if efficiency is improved. However, points beyond the curve are not possible without an increase in resources or technological advance.

  49. 8. Using a production possibilities curve, unemployment is represented by a point located a. near the middle of the curve. b. at the top corner of the curve. c. at the bottom corner of the curve. d. outside the curve. e. inside the curve. E. Any point underneath the production possibilities curve indicates that the economy’s resources are not being used efficiently, including labor.

  50. 9. Along a production possibilities curve, an increase in the production of one good can be accomplished only by a. decreasing the production of another good. b. increasing the production of another good. c. holding constant the production of another good. d. producing at a point on the corner of the curve. A. Along the production possibilities curve, there are no unemployed resources. Therefore, in order to produce more of one product, units of the other product must be given up.