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Interviews PowerPoint Presentation

Interviews

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Interviews

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  1. Interviews KNR 279 Stumbo, 2002

  2. INTERVIEWS • One source of information gathering • Involves face-to-face contact with clients and/or their families • Unlike exchanges that have social purposes, interviews have a very specific purpose

  3. PURPOSE • Information gathering • Discover what is on someone’s mind • Assess what can’t be directly observed • Enter another’s perspective • Assumes that their perspective is meaningful

  4. PURPOSE • Gather information • Develop relationship & rapport • Orientate to TR services • Austin, 1997

  5. Considerations when Creating Interviews • Commonalities & differences between staff & clients • Backgrounds • Terminology • Increase similarities, decrease differences • Dimensions of the relationship between staff & clients • Degree of control & power • Seating arrangement • Formality of environment • Degree of warmth displayed by staff

  6. Considerations when Creating Interviews • Perceptions • Dress & body language • Ability to answer questions • Warmth • Skill level of staff • Takes a lot of practice & hard work • Need to listen, evaluate, give feedback, probe • Collective experience • Time of day, day of week • Events preceding the interview • Nonverbal communication

  7. INTERVIEW AS ASSESSMENT • Need to be consistent • Conduct interview in a quiet, private, and comfortable environment • Determine strengths & weaknesses • Need to faithfully represent client’s responses • Need to maintain appropriate control

  8. CREATING THE INTERVIEW • Write questions • Clarity of questions • Determine what other disciplines are addressing • Consider reliability of the assessment • Consider validity of the assessment • Develop protocol

  9. Preparing for the Interview • Review client’s record • Minimizes need to repeat information • Conveys message of being prepared • Ability to analyze accuracy of responses • Decide who will be in interview • Client • Parents or family? • Review assessment form each time • Schedule time & place of interview • Prepare environment before interview

  10. Basic Part of Interview • Opening • Body • Closing

  11. OPENING INTERVIEW • First few minutes are the most important • Establish rapport • Greet client by name • Introduce self & position • Orientate to interview process • Purpose, length, how information will be used • Orientate to TR program • Informed consent • Confidentiality

  12. Body • Topics • Program content (for example) • Background information • Leisure awareness • Social skills • Stress management • Leisure resources • Start with less threatening questions • Start with less complex questions • May use time frame • Past, present, future

  13. CLOSING INTERVIEW • Purpose of interview & how use information • Offer to answer questions • Signal that time is up • Express appreciation • Plan the next interview • Summarize the interview • Goals, programs • See Stumbo, 2002, p. 210-211

  14. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS • Non-directive • Casual conversation • Informal conversational interview • Directive • General interview guide • Semi-structured • Standardized open ended interview • Structured • Produces most reliable & valid results

  15. INFORMAL CONVERSTIONAL • Spontaneous generation of questions • May not realize being interviewed • No pre-conceived notions of what is important • Maintain flexibility • Notes are not taken during interview

  16. GENERAL INTERVIEW GUIDE • List of questions/issues to be explored • Obtain basically the same information in each interview • Topics are listed, but interviewer can probe • Probes are not predetermined • Useful in group interviews

  17. STANDARDIZED INTERVIEW • Interview questions listed exactly how they will be asked • Probes are written in text • Purpose is to make more systematic • Easier to analyze

  18. WHAT TO ASK (Content) • Experience/behavior • Opinion/value • Feelings • Knowledge • Sensory • Background/demographic

  19. WORDING OF QUESTIONS • Open-ended & closed-ended • Presumption • Neutral & leading questions • Role-playing & simulation • Transitions • Probes & follow-up questions • Primary & secondary questions • Support & recognition

  20. NEGATIVE STYLES OF QUESTIONS • Avoid double-barreled questions • Avoid vague words • Most, all, every time • Avoid technical language • Avoid why questions • Ask relevant questions • Be careful of biased/leading questions