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INTERVIEWS PowerPoint Presentation

INTERVIEWS

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INTERVIEWS

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  1. INTERVIEWS

  2. 1. WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  3. What is an Interview? • The INTERVIEW is an interpersonal role situation in which one person, the interviewer, asks a person being interviewed, the respondent, questions designed to obtain answers to the research problem

  4. What is an Interview? • an interview is like a conversation between two people but more… • it requires varying degrees of directing and controlling from the researcher

  5. 1. What is an interview? 2. WHY USE AN INTERVIEW? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  6. Why use an Interview? • if you need QUALITATIVE DATA and not quantitative data • if you want to gain IN-DEPTH information as to people’s thoughts and feelings • if you want to gain insight into the MEANING of a phenomenon to people

  7. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. STAGES IN THE INTERVIEW METHOD 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  8. Stages in the Interview Method 1. Draft the interview 2. Pilot your questions 3. Select your interviewees 4. Conduct the interviews 5. Analyze the interview data

  9. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. DRAFTING THE INTERVIEW 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  10. Drafting the Interview • The Three models: 1. The Structured Interview 2. The Semi-Structured Interview 3.The Unstructured Interview

  11. Types of Interviews • STRUCTURED/STANDARDIZED/ FORMAL INTERVIEW • Questions, their sequence, and their wording are fixed • Interview schedule has been carefully prepared • PRESET QUESTIONS

  12. Types of Interviews • SEMI-STRUCTURED/ INFORMAL INTERVIEW • There is an overall aim as to what data should be collected but the questions asked can vary widely from person to person • Next question is determined by the response to the previous question • Interviewer may be GUIDED as to the topics but decides how to order and phrase questions

  13. Types of Interviews • UNSTRUCTURED/ UNSTANDARDIZED • More flexible and open • Questions, content, sequence, and wording at the hands of the interviewer • Interviewee can talk about anything • A wealth of qualitative data

  14. Choosing between the three models? The question is DEGREE OF CONTROL. But in any interview, it is important to prepare a list of KEY QUESTIONS to make sure that important issues will be discussed.  How many questions?  What type of questions?  Order/sequence of questions? Make a decision on how to RECORD the interview: audio or video?

  15. TIP #1: Use the FUNNELING technique – from general to specific/focused questions. • TIP #2: Start with light questions then move to sensitive/controversial ones. • TIP #3: Cluster/group questions around themes/issues.

  16. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. PILOTING THE QUESTIONS 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  17. Piloting the Questions • No research instrument is perfect • Pilot-test your questions with a select few • Eliminate ambiguous questions • Improve flow or structure • Make sure questions are easy to understand

  18. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. SELECTING THE INTERVIEWEES 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  19. Selecting Interviewees • Because interviews take longer and require more resources, make sure you interview the right people. • “Who would be the best source of information to answer your research question?”

  20. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  21. Conducting the Interview • 1. Organizing the Physical Space – less formal seating arrangements are better (e.g. interviewer and interviewee sitting side-by-side with a recording device discreetly placed) • 2. Introductions/Establishing Rapport a. tell who you are b. explain the purpose of the interview c. ask respondent for questions d. ask permission to record the interview e. create a relationship of confidence and trust (rapport)

  22. Conducting the Interview • 3. The Interview - open-ended questions provide more information than closed questions (e.g. Can you tell me…? How? Why? Pwede mo bang ikuwento…?) - impart comforting cues to indicate interest and understanding and encourage interviewee to respond (e.g. nod, sit straight, lean slightly forward, maintain eye contact) - re-state responses to clarify what has been said (also prompt interviewee to elaborate) - make use of silence

  23. Conducting the Interview • TIP #1: FOCUSING - introductory or context questions may be helpful before focusing on the “real” question • TIP #2: PROBING - feeding back respondent’s statements, asking why, waiting for elaboration (pausing) • 4.Closing - check with interviewee what has been said (check your interpretation of responses) - thank the interviewee - offer to provide a copy of the paper

  24. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. ANALYZING INTERVIEW DATA 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  25. Analyzing the Interview Data • Transcripts • Group responses to each question across respondents • Identify themes/ categories of responses

  26. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. ADVANTAGES 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  27. Advantages • 100% response rate • follow-up or probe questions • hear more than respondent tells (tone, body language, nonverbals) • opportunity to “voice out” opinions and attitudes • allows spontaneous expression • rich data esp. on thoughts, feelings, and experiences that are difficult to write on paper

  28. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. DISADVANTAGES 11. Interview checklist 12. The ten commandments

  29. Disadvantages • Requires a skilled interviewer (training, piloting) • Time-consuming and costly (1:2) • Difficult to analyze • Open to a variety of interpretations • Data may diverge from research questions

  30. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. INTERVIEW CHECKLIST 12. The ten commandments

  31. Interview Checklist • What questions will you ask? • How will you order the questions? • Will you follow a rigid structure? • How will you record the interview? • Have you piloted your interview? Have you incorporated comments or suggestions? • Are there complicated or ambiguous questions? • Have you identified your interviewees? Is your sample representative?

  32. Interview Checklist • Have you arranged to meet at a suitable place? • Have you communicated the timing of the interview? • How will you position yourself in the interview? • Have you prepared a briefing for the interview? • Can you assure anonymity? • Have you explained how the data will be used? • How will you thank the interviewee?

  33. 1. What is an interview? 2. Why use an interview? 3. Stages in the interview method 4. Drafting the interview 5. Piloting the questions 6. Selecting the interviewees 7. Conducting the interview 8. Analyzing interview data 9. Advantages 10. Disadvantages 11. Interview checklist 12. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

  34. The Ten Commandments of Interviewing • Do not begin the interview cold. • Warm up the conversation. Break the ice. Establish rapport. • Remember that you are there to get information. • Stay on your task. • Be direct. • Know your questions well. Do not appear casual or uninterested.

  35. The Ten Commandments of Interviewing • Dress appropriately. • Find a quiet place to do the interview where there will be no distractions. • If your interviewee does not give you a satisfactory answer the first time you ask a question, rephrase it. • If possible, use a tape recorder. • Make sure you ask permission first. But don’t forget to still take down notes.

  36. The Ten Commandments of Interviewing • Make the interviewee feel like an important part of an important project. • Express your appreciation. • PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE! • Thank the interviewee and ask if he/she has any questions. • Offer a copy of the results.

  37. REFERENCES: • Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences, 5th Ed. London: St. Martin’s Press, Inc. • Kerlinger, F. (1986). Foundations of Behavioral Research, 3rd Ed. NY: Hold, Rineheart and Winston, Inc. • Salkind, N.J. (2000). Exploring Research, 4th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. • Searle, A. (1999). Introducing Research and Data in Psychology. London: Routledge. • Wilkinson, D., & Birmingham, P. (2003). Using Research Instruments: A Guide for Researchers. London: Routledge.