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20 th Century U.S. History Since World War II. Unit 3 – Eisenhower Administration (1953-1961). “Modern Republicanism”. When Eisenhower took office, he wanted to limit the role of the presidential branch He wanted to bring back a better balance between the branches

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20 th century u s history since world war ii

20th Century U.S. History Since World War II

Unit 3 – Eisenhower Administration (1953-1961)

Modern republicanism
“Modern Republicanism”

  • When Eisenhower took office, he wanted to limit the role of the presidential branch

    • He wanted to bring back a better balance between the branches

  • He believed that the government should “be conservative when it comes to money, liberal when it comes to human beings”

  • As for conservative spending, he wanted to cut the role of government in the economy

Modern republicanism1
“Modern Republicanism”

  • To do this, he wanted to:

    • Cut taxes

    • Cut down the levels of funding

    • Balance the budget after years of deficit spending

    • Help encourage business growth

  • Even though he promoted strong business, the economic growth of the country slowed dramatically

    • It had been 4.3% between 1947 and 1952 and dropped to 2.5% between 1953 and 1960

    • There were also three recessions during Ike’s two terms

Start of the civil rights movement
Start of the Civil Rights Movement after the

  • In the postwar era, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and other groups sought to end segregation in the U.S.

  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka(May 1954)

    • Supreme Court ruled public school segregation illegal

    • It stated that the “separate but equal” ruling put forth by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) was unconstitutional

    • However, many southern schools did not follow the ruling

  • Many became frustrated with the slow process of legally gaining more rights

    • They instead turned to acts of civil disobedience

    • These included mass sit-ins, boycotts, and “freedom rides”

    • All of them were designed to be non-violent

Start of the civil rights movement1
Start of the Civil Rights Movement after the

  • On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested after she refused to sit at the back of a Montgomery, Alabama bus

    • Sparked a grassroots civil rights movement in the south

    • MLK Jr. organized a citywide bus boycott in response

    • The boycott lasted one year

    • Supreme Court that forced the city to desegregate its buses

  • Southern resistance to civil rights increased

    • State legislatures made it more difficult for African Americans to vote by instituting poll taxes and literacy tests

    • The NAACP was outlawed in several states

    • Local citizens organized councils to implement economic reprisals against blacks who tried to attend white schools or vote

Start of the civil rights movement2
Start of the Civil Rights Movement after the

  • On March 12, 1956, the southern members of Congress issued the “Declaration of Constitutional Principles”

    • It stated that the federal government did not have the power to force desegregation on the states

    • Also known as the “Southern Manifesto,” it was signed by 101 Congressmen

  • Eisenhower himself did not openly push for desegregation

    • Instead, he quietly worked towards desegregation of federal offices in the south

Start of the civil rights movement3
Start of the Civil Rights Movement after the

  • In January 1957, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was formed by black religious leaders including Martin Luther King Jr.

    • They promoted non-violent civil disobedience

  • In South Carolina, Citizenship Schools were set up to teach blacks how to read and write to pass the voting tests

The little rock nine
The Little Rock Nine after the

  • In 1955, the Little Rock Board of Education agreed to the “Blossom Plan”

    • This was to desegregate the school system starting in September 1957

    • This was done in accordance to Brown

    • It was unanimously approved by the board

  • In 1957, nine black students were selected to attend the Little Rock Central High

  • On September 2, 1957, Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard prevent these students from entering the school

The little rock nine1
The Little Rock Nine after the

  • Eisenhower met with Faubus a week later to ask him abide by Brown

  • On September 20, a federal judge ruled that Faubus illegally using the national guard

    • Local police were to be used instead to keep the peace

  • On September 23, the police were able to successfully get the students inside the school

    • When news got out of this, over 1,000 people confronted the police now outside of the school

    • The police had to evacuate the nine students

  • On September 25, members of the 101st Airborne escort the students to school

    • The Arkansas National Guard is placed under federal control

Joe mccarthy
Joe McCarthy after the

  • Joe McCarthy was a senator from Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957

    • He is best known for leading the battle against domestic communists during the early 1950s

  • He originally saw the “Communist question” as a rallying point for the Republican party

  • Wheeling Speech (February 1950)

    • Given in front of the Wheeling, West Virginia Women’s Club

    • “I have here in my hand a list of 205 that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department”

    • Later on this list was pared down to 57 names

McCarthyism after the

  • From 1950 to 1954, McCarthy attacked numerous political figures, accusing them of being communists

    • He used the press and television as part of his anti-communist campaigns

    • Anybody who spoke out against him was branded a communist

    • This worked because the American fear of communism grew tremendously during this time period

  • After the 1952 elections, McCarthy became the chairman of the Senate Committee on Government Operations

    • Part of this was the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations

    • McCarthy used this subcommittee to continue on with his accusations and investigations

Army mccarthy hearings
Army-McCarthy Hearings after the

  • In 1953, McCarthy and his subcommittee began to investigate the army

    • This included a number of high-ranking officers

  • On March 11, 1954, the army then accused McCarthy of pressuring the army to give preferential treatment to a former aid who had been drafted

    • McCarthy’s chief counsel, Roy Cohn, had also been accused

  • McCarthy believed this accusation was made in retaliation for his investigations

  • A special Senate committee was put together to investigate the claims

Army mccarthy hearings1
Army-McCarthy Hearings after the

  • The Army-McCarthy Hearings began in April 1954 and lasted 36 days

    • It was televised across the country

    • The committee found that McCarthy had done nothing improper

  • The televised hearings did change American perception of McCarthy

    • The American public saw McCarthy as a lying, reckless bully

    • After these hearings, McCarthy’s popularity dropped dramatically

Election of 1956
Election of 1956 after the

  • During the Republican National Convention in August 1956, Eisenhower was unchallenged in gaining the party’s nomination

    • There had been some doubts the previous year as he suffered a heart attack and surgery for ileitus (inflamed small intestine) but had been cleared by his doctors

    • Nixon was once again approved as his running mate

  • The Democrats once again appointed Adlai Stevenson as their nominee

    • Many Democrats did not seek nomination as Eisenhower’s popularity was so high at the time

Election of 19561
Election of 1956 after the

  • Eisenhower ran his campaign on the successes of the first four years of his administration

    • This included ending the Korean War

  • Stevenson focused his attacks on Eisenhower’s expansion of the military and nuclear weapons program

    • He called for a reduction in military spending

  • Eisenhower received 57.4% of the votes and 457 electoral votes

    • Stevenson only received 42% and 73 respectively

    • One “faithless elector” voted for Walter B. Jones instead of Stevenson

The h bomb
The H-Bomb after the

  • During Eisenhower’s administration, one of the key issues with the atomic weapons program was to develop a viable delivery system

    • While “Ivy Mike” was the first thermonuclear device tested, it was too large to transport via plane or missile

  • On August 12, 1953, the Soviet Union exploded its first thermonuclear device, “Joe-4”

    • It technically was not a “true” hydrogen bomb and was not as powerful as the ones designed by the U.S.

    • However, what made it so dangerous that the bomb was small enough that it could be transported via plane

The h bomb1
The H-Bomb after the

  • The U.S. followed up with its “Castle Bravo” test on March 1, 1954

    • The testing took place on the Bikini Atoll

    • Scientists made an error in calculations for the bomb so instead of being a 5 megaton explosion, it created a 14.8 megaton one

    • It was the largest nuclear device exploded by the U.S.

  • Japanese fishermen on the Fukuryu Maru were 90 miles off the coast of Bikini at the time of the test and died of radiation poisoning

The space race
The “Space Race” after the

  • In 1952, the International Council of Scientific Unions named the International Geophysical Year (IGY)

    • It was going to be held from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958

    • During this time the sun’s activity was going to be at an 11-year high so scientists were encouraged to examine “global geophysical activities”

  • On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. would participate in the IGY by launching an artificial satellite into orbit

    • The project became known as “Vanguard”

The space race1
The “Space Race” after the

  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik 1, the world’s first artificial satellite, into orbit

  • The U.S. was completely off-guard by this launch

    • Vanguard was still in its developmental stage with scientists still trying to develop the first stage of the rocket launcher

    • Many were shocked that the Soviets got their satellite up first since the U.S. had been considered the leader in space technology

  • It marks the beginning of the “space race” between the U.S. and the Soviets

The space race2
The “Space Race” after the

  • The Soviets then quickly followed up with the launch of Sputnik 2 on November 3, 1957

    • This satellite carried the first ever live passenger, a dog named Laika

  • Panicked by the Soviets achievements, the U.S. attempted to launch Vanguard TV-3 even though it was not ready

    • On December 6th, the launch took place but the engine injectors failed

    • The rocket only rose about four feet, then collapsed back to the ground and exploded

  • Vanguard after the explosion

    • (Dec. 6, 1957)

The space race3
The “Space Race” after the

  • In February 1958, Eisenhower created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)

    • Part of the Department of Defense, ARPA was designed to oversee research and development of new technologies for the military

    • Its focus in its early years was not just on the “space race” but on the development of ballistic missile defense and the detection of nuclear tests

  • On March 17th, Vanguard 1 was successfully launched into orbit

    • There were four other failed tests afterwards before Vanguard 2 was successfully launched on February 17, 1959

The space race4
The “Space Race” after the

  • On July 29, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Act was signed into law

    • It created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which was responsible for the U.S. space program

    • It also created the National Aeronautics and Space Council which would advise the president on matters regarding the space program

  • In 1959, Congress expanded funding to the National Science foundation by almost $100 million

    • It was now receiving $134 million a year

The space race5
The “Space Race” after the

  • The U.S. also began the Polaris program

    • This was a research and development program to design submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM)

      • Ballistic missiles are designed as a delivery system for nuclear weapons

    • The program began in December 1956 with a contract given to Lockheed to develop the missile

    • On July 20, 1960, the first successful underwater launch of the Polaris A1 took place from the U.S.S. George Washington

    • On May 6, 1962, a Polaris A1 was successfully launched into the Pacific with a live nuclear warhead

      • This strategic missile launch was the only full live test done by the U.S.

Korean war
Korean War after the

  • In March 1953, the biggest turning point of the Korean War occurred: Stalin died

    • This left the Chinese with uncertainties about continued Soviet support

  • In May, Eisenhower stated that if negotiations for a peace settlement failed, the U.S. would seek a “military solution”

    • This implied a nuclear attack

  • On July 27, 1953, a cease-fire was put in place

  • The Numbers:

    • 142,000 casualties total with 33,000 of those in combat

    • 17,000 UN forces died

    • Around 2 million Koreans died

Effects of the korean war
Effects of the Korean War after the

  • U.S. military spending increased from $13 billion to $47 billion between 1950 and 1953

    • This followed the guidelines set by NSC-68

  • With the war, the U.S. started a more aggressive policy in Asia

  • A key component was the U.S. signing a peace treaty with Japan in September 1951

    • This treaty was designed to have Japan act as balancing measure for the U.S. in the Pacific

  • The U.S. increased aid to France when Ho Chi Minh, leader of the anti-French movement in Vietnam, accepted aid from China and the Soviets

Effects of the korean war1
Effects of the Korean War after the

  • The war prompted the U.S. to start plans to rearm West Germany

  • This was the first war that had African Americans integrated in previously all-white units

    • Their success on the front led to the acceptance of fully integrated units

  • North and South Korea are still divided along the 38th parallel

    • Neither side had accepted the peace agreement put forth by the U.S. but they did sign a non-aggression pact in 1991

Containment in the 1950 s
Containment in the 1950’s after the

  • Eisenhower had to reassess Truman’s containment policy

    • There was public criticism that the previous administration had not done enough to contain communism

  • Secretary of State John Foster Dulles believed that it was not enough to contain communism

    • He believed that the U.S. should promote democracy and liberate countries from Soviet influence

  • Eisenhower also spoke out against the Soviets

    • However, he was not so willing to help liberate Soviet satellites

    • He believed that getting involved would lead to a greater conflict

  • Throughout his two terms, the policy of containment remained the same as it had under Truman

Uprising in east germany
Uprising in East Germany after the

  • On June 17, 1953, a number of workers’ riots broke out throughout East Germany

    • Started when the Soviets increased production quotas by 10

    • The rebellion then evolved into a political movement

    • Many called for not only workplace reforms but political ones as well, including free elections

  • The Soviets responded by sending in tanks and declaring a state of emergency

  • Eisenhower did not want the U.S. to intervene for fear of starting a third world war

    • Organized a food distribution program to East Berlin

    • It would not only help the striking workers but also score brownie points for the U.S.

Khrushchev thaw
“Khrushchev Thaw” after the

  • In September 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became Secretary of the Communist Party

    • Control over the Soviet Union was divided between him and Georgi Malekov until 1955

    • In 1955, he placed Nikolai Bulganin as the Soviet Premier

  • Khrushchev believed that Stalin had been too tight on controls in the eastern bloc countries

    • He believed that their relationship should be one of cooperation rather than subjugation

Khrushchev thaw1
“Khrushchev Thaw” after the

  • On February 26, 1956, Khrushchev denounced the harsh measures in place during Stalin’s regime in a secret speech to the Communist Party

    • The report was called On the Personality Cult and its Consequences

  • On May 14, 1955, the Soviet Union and the European Socialist countries signed the Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance

    • It was in response to the creation of NATO

Hungarian revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 after the

  • Hungary suffered under political and economic repression after World War II

  • In July 1956, Hungarians replaced the old Stalin-like MátyásRákosi

    • This was in response to Khrushchev's “secret speech”

    • He was replaced with a more “liberal” leader

  • Over the next few months, people began to speak out for more freedoms and political reforms

  • On October 23, 1956, over 200,000 marched in Budapest

    • It was in sympathy to the Polish who had gained some political reform after their uprising

  • The demonstration started out mostly a peaceful event

    • They did tear down the 30 foot tall statue of Stalin

Hungarian revolution of 19561
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 after the

  • When Hungarian police began shooting tear gas into the crowds, the demonstration became violent

  • The next day, Soviet troops entered the city in an attempt to seize control

    • Many used Molotov Cocktails against the Soviet forces as their only effect weapon against the Soviet tanks

    • The rebels were able to force Soviet troops out of the city by October 30

  • A new government was set up under Imre Nagy, who was considered a more “moderate” communist

    • Nagy wanted to push through numerous reforms, including withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact

Hungarian revolution of 19562
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 after the

  • Eisenhower said “I feel with the Hungarian people”

    • Even Secretary of State John Dulles told the Hungarian people “To all those suffering under communist slavery, let us say you can count on us”

    • Both of these implied that the U.S. would be willing to help the new government

  • Khrushchev considered the loss of Hungary from the Pact too great a threat to Soviet interests

  • On November 1, 1956, Soviet forces invaded Hungary en masse to crush the rebellion

    • They re-entered Budapest on November 4

Hungarian revolution of 19563
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 after the

  • Eisenhower did nothing to help the Hungarians when the Soviets crushed their rebellion

    • At the time, the U.S. was involved in the Suez Crisis and in Vietnam

    • Hungary was considered too deep into the Soviet Bloc and if the U.S. got involved, this could possibly lead to another world war

    • Also, elections were coming up in the U.S. so there is a belief that Eisenhower did not want to jeopardize his chance at re-election

Trouble in southeast asia
Trouble in Southeast Asia after the

  • Part of the policy of containment meant protecting southeast Asia from communist infiltration

  • Indochina had been a French colony since 1887

    • It included Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

    • During World War II, Indochina was a French-administered possession of Japan

  • In 1930, Ho Chi Minh founded the Indochinese Communist Party

  • In 1941, Ho organized other Vietnamese nationalist groups into the League for the Independence of Vietnam

    • This later became known as the Viet Minh

Trouble in southeast asia1
Trouble in Southeast Asia after the

  • After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Ho led an uprising and was able to seize power

    • He established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

  • The French were not so quick to give up the territory

    • With the help of British forces was able to seize the southern part of Vietnam

  • By the beginning of 1946, there were two Vietnams:

    • A communist north controlled by the Viet Minh

    • The south controlled by the French

First indochina war
First Indochina War after the

  • At first, the two governments tried to work together but their ideologies clashed

    • The French wanted the area to remain a colony while the Viet Minh wanted an independent Vietnam

  • War broke out in November 1946

  • While Ho was a communist, he did not have strong ties to the Soviets

    • Truman, however, believed he did and saw this as another move in the spread of Soviet power

    • In 1950, the U.S. officially recognized the French puppet government in Vietnam and began sending aid to the French

First indochina war1
First Indochina War after the

  • When Eisenhower came to office, he refused to directly participate in the conflict

    • “I am frankly of the belief that no amount of American military assistance in Indochina can conquer an enemy which is everywhere and at the same time nowhere, ‘an enemy of the people’ which has the sympathy and covert support of the people” (1954)

  • On July 21, 1954, the Geneva Accords were signed

    • Granted the independence of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia

    • Vietnam was divided into two separate zones that were to hold free elections to be held in 1956 to unify the country

South vietnam
South Vietnam after the

  • South Vietnam’s leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, prevented the elections from occurring

    • The U.S. supported his decision

  • The U.S. continued to provide economic aid and military advisement to South Vietnam

  • In response to the cancelled elections, opponents to Diem’s regime formed the Communist National Liberation Front

    • This became known as the Viet Cong

    • They received support from North Vietnam

Creation of israel
Creation of Israel after the

  • In 1947, the UN passed Resolution 181 to end the Arab-Jewish conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine

    • It divided Palestine into Arab and Jewish areas

    • Jerusalem was to be kept an international zone under U.N. control due to its religious significance

    • A majority of Jewish groups supported the plan but the Arab groups did not

  • On May 14, 1948, the British left Palestine and the state of Israel was officially created

    • The U.S. recognized the state of Israel 15 minutes after it was proclaimed

The 1948 1949 arab israeli war
The 1948-1949 Arab-Israeli War after the

  • On May 15, 1948 Arab forces invaded southern and eastern Palestine that were not part of the Jewish state

    • The forces were made up of troops from Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon

  • The Secretary-General of the League of Arab States sent a letter to the U.N.

    • Stated that it was not accepting the plan to create two separate states

    • Instead, they wanted to create a united state of Palestine

  • Israelis were able to drive the Arab forces out

    • Israel increased its borders to include most of southern Palestine

    • The West Bank and Gaza went to Jordan and Egypt

Growing arab israel tensions
Growing Arab-Israel Tensions after the

  • While the treaties of 1949 temporarily ended hostilities, it did not end the tension between Israel and the Arab countries

  • Later that year, Egypt closed the Suez Canal to Israeli ships

    • Under economic pressure from the U.N., Egypt was forced to reopen the Canal in 1951

  • In 1954, General Gamal Abdel Nasser came to power in Egypt

    • He was a staunch supporter of pan-Arabism

    • He claimed he wanted Egypt to be neutral in the Cold War

Suez crisis
Suez Crisis after the

  • Both the U.S. and Britain offered to help Egypt fund the building of the Aswan Dam

    • This was to be a giant hydroelectric power station on the Nile River

    • Part of the reason why the U.S. did this was due to its plan to prevent the Middle East from falling into Soviet influence

  • In 1955, Egypt purchased arms from Czechoslovakia and officially recognized the People’s Republic of China

    • When the U.S. and Britain found out about this, they withdrew their offer of funding the dam on July 19, 1956

    • This was continuing the policy of containment

Suez crisis1
Suez Crisis after the

  • On July 26, 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal

    • This meant that he forcibly placed the canal under Egyptian control

    • Nasser hoped that the tolls accumulated from the Canal would pay for the dam

  • Part of the damn (44%) had been controlled by British interests

    • Many feared Nasser would prevent British and French ships from traveling through the canal especially those carrying oil to western Europe

  • Egypt did restrict Israeli ships from traveling through the Canal

Suez crisis2
Suez Crisis after the

  • After all diplomatic options had failed, the British and French, along with the Israelis, came up with a covert plan to wrestle away control of the Canal

  • On October 29, 1956 Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula

    • Britain and France intervened stating both the Egyptian and Israeli troops must leave the canal area

    • They were doing so under the guise of enforcing a U.N. ordered a cease-fire

  • On November 5, British and French troops began occupying the canal area

  • When Eisenhower heard of this he was incensed

    • He immediately demanded the withdrawal of troops from Egypt

Suez crisis3
Suez Crisis after the

  • Khrushchev warned of a possible Soviet strike if the troops were not removed

  • Eisenhower sponsored a UN resolution condemning the attack by the Israelis

    • He also convinced other nations to stop exporting oil to Britain or France because of their actions

  • On December 22, 1956, the British and French troops withdrew from the canal under orders from the U.N.

    • U.N. Emergency Forces took control of the Sinai Peninsula

  • March 1957, Israeli troops withdrew as well

Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine after the

  • On January 5, 1957, Eisenhower declared that the U.S. must protect independent countries from Soviet aggression

    • This was mainly in response to the Soviet’s threat during the Suez Crisis

  • He put forth his ideas of what was to become known as the Eisenhower Doctrine

    • The U.S. would give both economic and military aid to Middle Eastern countries to prevent Soviet influence in the region

    • This was designed to have the U.S. fill in the vacuum left by the British and French leaving the region

U 2 crisis
U-2 Crisis after the

  • On May 1, 1960, a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union

    • It had been photographing intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) development sites

  • The U.S. government denied it was a spy plane and said it was NASA “weather research” plane

    • NASA issued a statement on May 5 “confirming” this

    • The government had assumed that the pilot, Francis Gary Powers, was dead and the plane destroyed

  • On May 7, Khrushchev revealed that he not only had the plane but had Powers as well

  • The U.S. responded by stating that the plane was only gathering information as was necessary “given the state of the world today”

U 2 crisis1
U-2 Crisis after the

  • The Soviets were angered by the “aggressive acts of American aviation”

    • They also warned that “if similar provocations are repeated, it will be obliged to take retaliatory measures”

  • This incident led to the failure of the Paris Summit which began on May 15, 1960

    • Khrushchev demanded an apology which Eisenhower refused to give

    • Khrushchev stated that it was impossible to have discussions about a “peaceful co-existence” with a country that encouraged the use of spy planes

  • Powers had been tried and found guilty of espionage

    • He was sentenced to three years imprisonment and seven years hard labor

Elections of 1960
Elections of 1960 after the

  • By the time the elections of 1960 came around, the American people wanted change

  • Domestically, they thought the government had been stagnant for the past eight years

    • Many people were upset about the recessions under Eisenhower, especially the one during 1957-8

  • Internationally, they believed the U.S. foreign policy had been stagnant as well

    • Many Americans saw Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev as intemperate and volatile

    • There were also strong anti-U.S. protests taking place throughout Latin America

    • Liberation movements sprung up in Africa and Asia

Elections of 19601
Elections of 1960 after the

  • The Republican nominee was Richard Nixon

    • He technically had more governmental experience because he served as V.P. under Eisenhower for eight years

    • Many considered the best candidate because of that

  • The Democrat nominee was John F. Kennedy

    • JFK represented a new, young direction for the government

    • He was charismatic and symbolized strength, vigor and youth

    • He had been a Senator of Massachusetts for eight years

    • He was Irish Catholic which raised some controversy

Elections of 19602
Elections of 1960 after the

  • The turning point of the campaigns was the four televised debates between the two candidates

    • The first debate was watched by over 80 million viewers

  • They both discussed the same issues:

    • Economic growth

    • An end to communist expansion

    • Each used the term “new frontier” to explain the future course of America

  • Those who listened to the radio broadcast of the debates felt that Nixon was the dominant party and he had “won” the debate

Elections of 19603
Elections of 1960 after the

  • Those who watched the debates on TV believed Kennedy won

    • They were not paying so much attention to what was being said but rather how the candidates looked and acted

  • Nixon had recently been hospitalized with an infection in his knee

    • He looked pale and gaunt

    • He also refused makeup to cover his heavy beard stubble

  • Kennedy, on the other hand, looked tanned and rested

    • He held himself well and projected self-confidence

  • It is believed that this debate swayed over 4 million viewers to Kennedy’s side

Elections of 19604
Elections of 1960 after the

  • Kennedy won with a margin of only 120,000 votes

    • The Electoral College vote was 303-219

    • This does not reflect the very small margins that JFK won in certain areas

    • Kennedy won the Northeast and most of the major cities while Nixon won the Midwest and the rural areas

  • There were accusations of fraud against Kennedy in Illinois and Texas

    • Nixon refused to pursue recounts