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Lecture 24 Pope Innocent III

Lecture 24 Pope Innocent III

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Lecture 24 Pope Innocent III

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  1. Lecture 24 Pope Innocent III Dr. Ann T. Orlando 23 October 2013

  2. Introduction • Pope Innocent III • Fourth Lateran Council • Universities

  3. Pope Innocent III (1160 – 1216) • Born in Anagani, Italy • Studied at Universities of Rome, Paris and Bologna • Named Cardinal-Deacon by Pope Clement III • Elected Pope in 1198 • Died in Rome, 1216

  4. Key Points of Pontificate of Innocent III • Expanded role of papacy in secular affairs • Expanded Canon Law • Called the Fourth Crusade • Convened the Fourth Lateran Council • Approved Dominican and Franciscan orders

  5. Innocent III and Western Politics • Resolved a disputed election of new HRE in 1198-1202; wrote a decretal affirming: • German princes elect king, who will then be HRE • This right was given to German princes by the Holy See, which transferred Imperial title from Greeks to Charlemagne • If the Pope thinks the elected king unworthy, princes must elect someone else • If princes cannot agree on a king, Pope will select one • King John of England refused to accept Innocent's selection as Archbishop of Canterbury • Innocent places an interdict on England (no sacraments for population) • King of France threatens to invade England • John relents; and is placed in a very weakened position leading to Magna Carta • Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913: There was scarcely a country in Europe over which Innocent III did not in some way or other assert the supremacy which he claimed for the papacy.

  6. The Lateran • Recall, site given by Constantine in 4th C to the Pope to be the Pope’s palace • Throughout the Middle Ages, Lateran was location of Curia and administrative offices • Vatican offices were developed by the Renaissance Popes • Part of rebuilding of St. Peter’s after fall of Constantinople 1453

  7. First Three Lateran Councils • First Lateran (1123, Callistus II) • Reinforced Concordat of Worms • Forbade clergy and monks to marry or have concubines • Monks and others within a diocese had to obtain chrism oils from bishop • Second Lateran Council (1139, Innocent II) • Condemned marriage and concubines among clergy • Prohibited jousting and dueling • No bishopric left vacant more than three years • Kings to administer justice in consultation with ecclesial authorities • Third Lateran Council (1179, Alexander III) • Cardinal-bishops elect pope with 2/3 majority required • Forbade extortion of money for administration of sacraments

  8. Fourth Lateran Council (1215) • Included Patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem (Latin) • Doctrine of transubstantiation (Canon 1) • Exhorted Greeks to reunite with Roman Church; only one shepherd of the Church (Canon 4) • Papal Primary, followed by Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem (Canon 5) • Forbade establishment of new religious orders (Canon 13) • Christians must confess their sins at least once per year (Canon 21) • Payment of tithes (Canon 54) • Jews and Muslims must wear special dress to distinguish them from Christians (Canons 78, 79)

  9. Papacy after Innocent III • Time of increasing tension between popes and civil rulers • 16 popes between 1216 – 1294 (Boniface VIII) • Including two multi-year periods without a pope • Selection of popes increasingly dependent on national interests of cardinals

  10. Early Paris • Paris started as a Roman town, Lutetium • Renamed Paris in 3rd C after local Celtic tribe • First Christian missionaries probably sent by Pope Fabian in 3rd C • First bishop was Dionysius, or Denis • St. Denis and his companions were martyred by the Romans on Montmarte (Mont of the martyrs) • There may have been a pagan temple where Notre Dame now stands • After Constantine the Great, several churches were built in Paris, including one on the site of Notre Dame

  11. Building the Cathedral of Notre Dame • By tradition, the first stone was laid in 1163 • But not completed until 1250, with additional work after that for the next several centuries • Built in the ‘Gothic’ style that became the standard for grand church architecture throughout Europe in the Middle Ages • As the primary cathedral of Paris, Notre Dame assumed an important role in Church and French political history

  12. Importance of Paris in Middle Ages • During the Middle Ages, Paris was transformed from a small fishing and trading town to an important political capital • Center for many trade guilds • With this transformation, Church in Paris also became very important • A place of learning

  13. Beginning of University System • Churches, especially cathedrals and monasteries were primary sources of education for nearly 1,000 years in Europe • Recall that Alcuin of York under Charlemagne had began system of schools throughout kingdom • During 11th C, Pope Gregory VII initiated many reforms, including requirements for education of secular clergy • Bishops established cathedral schools • Education focused on Canon law, administration, higher learning • Enrollment not limited to clergy

  14. Universities and the Church • The university system as we know it today grew out of the Cathedral schools of the Middle Ages • Most famous and important was the Cathedral School of Notre Dame • Became the University of Paris, also known as the Sorbonne • Students from all over Europe sought to enter the most prestigious schools • To be an universitasan institution had to recognized as such by the Pope • ‘Nation’ was a fraternal group of students at the major universities who came from the same region and spoke the same local language

  15. Medieval University Degrees • Bachelors degree • Six years to obtain • Study of seven liberal arts • Masters degree • Four to six more years • Specialization in law, medicine or theology • Theology was most important and prestigious • Holder of masters degree could teach others • Doctorate • Several more years of study • Holder could teach at most prestigious universities

  16. Evolution of Modern University System • During Renaissance • City-state and national courts develop their own ‘cultural’ centers • Development of vernacular language and literature • Eventually universities become more secular • Seminaries are formally established at Council of Trent