Absolutism in England Restoration to Glorious Revolution Section 3 (cont.)
Life in the 17th Century: Clothing • At the beginning of the 1600s there was only one word to describe the clothing of the upper classes. • STIFF!
Early 17th Century Clothing: Men No such thing as underwear. – You wore a short chemise that went down to the mid-thigh. Served as your nightshirt too. Rarely changed your “linens.”
Men’s Clothing in the early 17th Century • Over the undershirt men would put padding to make it look like they had a belly and padding for the roll. • Often so stuffed – they couldn’t sit down! • Held their stockings up with colored garters. • Shoes had no heels and there were no left or right foot shapes. • Ruffs were wired to hold their shape. • Doublets and jerkins finished the “look.”
Women’s Clothing: At the beginning of the 17th century: • Chemises were often full length. • Wore lots of wire and whale bone to make their clothes stiff.
History of the Corset • Tended to deform women’s rib cages and shift organ alignment. • Probably played a big part in the number of miscarriages and deaths in childbirth.
Transformation (for awhile) in the 17th Century • Clothing became softer and easier to wear. • Wearing lace and color a sign of your power and wealth.
Women’s Clothing • Empire waists. • Corsets were a bit looser. • Lace was detachable on the dress to make it look different. • Pearl jewelry was the rage. • HORROR! Women were cutting bangs and frizzing their hair! • It was the age of the décolletage. • Low, LOW necklines that lace was worn over.
Men’s Clothing: The Cavalier • Boots were usually favored by men. • The waistcoat was long and coats were “cutaway” so you could see the richness of the waistcoat and lace. • Hats were very big and worn inside as well as out. • Stockings were held up by colorful garters under their breeches.
Shoes / Boots / Gloves • Red heeled shoes were allowed ONLY for royalty. • Still no left nor right foot. • Bucket topped boots for men. • Gloves were also important for the nobles to wear. • Handmade for the individual. • Often given as engagement gifts – you would exchange one glove.
The other “style” of the time: • WIGS!
Men wore wigs • Personal hygiene was not very good. • Elaborate long hair was the rage to wear. • It was easier to shave your head and keep wigs. • Hairspray? Mousse? Gel? – they used butter and lard. • Size of the wig showed your social status. • King’s had to be the tallest! • Louis XIV had over 300 wigs.
The poor? • Covered their hair to keep lice and other vermin from the oily hair. • Often wore the same thing until it rotted away.
England 1660: The Return of a King • THE RESTORATION • King Charles II is brought back to rule England.
Charles II: An absolute monarch – that knew limits. • Charles believed in his Divine Right to rule. • But he seemed to know that there needed to be limits. • Self-imposed limits.
Charles II: Childhood • Unusual for his time, his parents were loving to their children. • But as the first born son, Charles had special attention. • As a boy unusually tall and strong. • Unusually physically active for a prince. • Took after his Grandfather Henry IV of France.
Charles II • Privilege ended abruptly when his father was beheaded. • 19 years old – a prince without a country or money. • Treated as a poor relation in France.
What happened to his mother? • Henrietta Maria did not handle exile and losing her husband very well. • Petitioned Cromwell to give her her “widow’s right” of the money from tin mines in England. • Traditionally what widowed queens lived off of.
What do you think Cromwell said? • He said it was true – he would give a widowed queen her rightful legacy IF …. • She was a QUEEN of England. • Remember? • Henrietta Maria had refused to be crowned in a Protestant ceremony.
Henrietta Maria • Spent most of the rest of her life crying over her lost husband. • Tried to have him made into a saint. • Her tears and refusing to be in any house she had been in with her husband made her a less than welcome guest.
Charles II • Didn’t get much supervision. • Had to take over as the head of the family. • An unemployed prince had to learn a lot of humility and doing without things. • Also freed him up to see how other people lived.
Charles II • Kept lines of communication open with England. • 1659 was offered the chance to come back to England IF: • Signed the Petition of Right that his father had thrown away.
Charles II: • Charles agreed IF: • Parliament wouldn’t interfere with his Divine Right. • He could take revenge on the men who had signed his father’s death warrant.
The Regicides • Of the 59 men who had signed Charles I death warrant in 1649, 35 were still alive in 1660. • Most chose to immigrate to Europe or the Americas. • Some were hanged. • Some were hanged, drawn and quartered. • Others imprisoned for life. • One was pardoned. • He had helped Charles II in exile.
King Charles did not treat his return as a time to “get even” with people. • For an absolute monarch he was pretty fair. • Spent part of the tax money on improving the life of his people. • Had some religious tolerance.
Religion under King Charles II (1660 – 1685) • Return to the Anglican Faith as the religion of the country. • Some tolerance for Catholics. • Puritans could practice their religion BUT: • Ministers couldn’t live closer than 7 miles to their parishioners. • You couldn’t be married or buried in your church. • Had to use the Anglican Church • Continued until 1888!
The Restoration: 1660 - 1685 • PARTY TIME! • After all the restrictions under the Puritans, people were ready to have a good time. • Charles definitely knew how to do that!
The Restoration: 1660 - 1685 • Clothing and morals were “looser.” • Dancing, Theatre, Music were encouraged.
And HORROR to the Puritans! • 1661 WOMEN were allowed to act on the stage! • Nell Gwynn – one of the first actresses and one of King Charles’ many, many, many mistresses!
King Charles wasn’t all about having a good time! • Interested in science. • Founded The Royal Society. • England’s first scientific “club.” • Interested in scientific equipment. • Did go out among the people to see how his rules were being accepted by the people. • Some brothels too!
Trivia: King Charles outlawed something we use quite regularly today. • Felt Coffee Houses were a place where politics was discussed more than it should be!
Charles II: The Merry Monarch • We get the phrase: “Eat, drink, and be merry.” • “Restless he rolls from whore to whoreA merry monarch, scandalous and more.” • Song from the Restoration.
Charles II • Married Catherine of Braganza after seeing her portrait. • Didn’t marry for love, it was politics. • But said it was a face he could trust.
Catherine of Braganza • Catholic, but didn’t flaunt her religion about England. • Was a good wife to her husband, except in one way: • She never had a child. • Always miscarried.
The Merry Monarch • Had LOTS of flings – but did have FIVE OFFICIAL mistresses. • 12 children. • Made mistresses and children “royal” with titles and wealth. • Didn’t make Parliament happy to have to bankroll all these kids!
Mistress #1: Barbara Villiers • Made her the Countess of Castlemaine. • Dukes of Cleveland. • 5 children
Mistress #2: Catherine Pegge • No pictures are known of her: • 2 children • Charles FitzCharles. • A daughter
Mistress #3: Louise de Kerouaille • Duchess of Portsmouth • One son: Charles, Duke of Richmond
Mistress #4: Lucy Walter • A Welsh middle gentry woman that became a courtesan: • Son Charles, Duke of Monmouth. • One daughter • Died before the Restoration.
Mistress #5: Nell Gwynn • The actress! • Made their sons the Duke of St. Albans and the Earl of Beauclerc.(Beauclerk) • But died before he could give her a title. • “Don’t let poor Nell starve.” – Charles II’s last words.
Charles II dies • Stroke at 54 • May have been brought on by a kidney malfunction? • Four days to die: • “I apologize for being so long a dying.”
Historical RUMOR: • Did Charles II turn CATHOLIC before he died? • Still a great deal of anti-Catholic sentiment in England. • Rumors of being poisoned in a Catholic plot to take the throne.
Because next in line was his brother JAMES • James II • A CATHOLIC king???
James II King 1685 - 1689 • James in exile was even more “forgotten.” • He was a younger son, an unemployed prince without much parental guidance in European exile.
Prince James • Became a Catholic as a teenager. • Married a member of the lower nobility, Anne Hyde. • Had eight children before she died in 1671. • She never “fit in” with the Restoration.
King Charles • Sympathized with his brother – but had to look to the future of the Stuart line. • Two daughters of James and Anne lived. • Ordered that they be raised as Protestants. • Princess Mary • Princess Anne
King James II and VII (England and Scotland) • The last Catholic king of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.