Absolutism in Russia. Ivan to Peter. Russian Beginnings before 9 th C. Many Ethnic Groups in Russia Scythians Alans Finns Turks Magyars. Siberia “Permafrost”. Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, and in July from 1 to 25°C 150,000,000 population.
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Ivan to Peter
Many Problems: Succession of Rulers had to hold territorial seats to become ruler
Threats of (Mongol) nomads,
Loss of Northern trade
Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.