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Absolutism in Russia. Ivan to Peter. Russian Beginnings before 9 th C. Many Ethnic Groups in Russia Scythians Alans Finns Turks Magyars. Siberia  “Permafrost”. Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, and in July from 1 to 25°C 150,000,000 population.

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russian beginnings before 9 th c
Russian Beginnings before 9th C
  • Many Ethnic Groups in Russia
  • Scythians
  • Alans
  • Finns
  • Turks
  • Magyars

Siberia  “Permafrost”

  • Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, and in July from 1 to 25°C
  • 150,000,000 population.
  • A former “gulag” Soviet prison camp.
slavs move in
Slavs move in
  • Farmers
  • Grew barley, wheat, rye
  • Traded forest products:
    • Timber, fur, fish
vikings take over
Vikings take over
  • Slavs peaceful—do not fight
  • Rurik moves in: First Viking Ruler
  • Oleg, his successor, captures Kiev
kieven rus
Kieven Rus
  • Good location for trade
  • On Dnieper River
  • Constantinople nearby
  • Trade forest products for manufactured goods and ideas
cyril and methodius
Cyril and Methodius
  • Monks
  • 850 AD left Constantinople to spread Christianity to Slavs
  • Created Cyrillic language
  • Taught Slavs their alphabet—from Greek language
988 vladimir i
988—Vladimir I
  • Vladimir renounces his pagan ways and wives
  • Accepts Christianity
  • 999—orders all Kievens to be baptized
  • Christian world—one leader: Pope in Rome
1054 christianity splits
1054—Christianity splits
  • Patriarch of Constantinople refused to accept Papal Supremacy
  • Split continues today
  • Eastern/Greek Orthodoxy centered in Constantinople
1453 constantinople falls
1453—Constantinople Falls
  • Turks sack Constantinople
  • Power of patriarch reduced
  • Russian Church leaders gain power
16 th century church
16th Century Church
  • Russia independent of Greek Orthodox Church
  • Rejected control of Patriarch in Constantinople
  • Moscow becomes center of Russian Orthodoxy
patriarch s influence
Patriarch’s influence
  • Russian Patriarchs close to Tsars
  • Encourage strong control over Peasants
  • Russia separated from Western Ideas
  • Split with Rome
russian separation
Russian Separation
  • Native Russian used in Church, not Latin
  • Russian scholars isolated from intellectual developments in West
decline of kieven rus
Decline of Kieven Rus
  • Despite advantages: good soil, rivers, Black Sea trade

Many Problems: Succession of Rulers had to hold territorial seats to become ruler

Threats of (Mongol) nomads,

Loss of Northern trade

1223 golden horde enters russia
1223: Golden Horde Enters Russia
  • Batu Khan+ Gold Colored tents
  • 1240: sacks Kiev
  • Only Novgorod Free, but forced to recognize Tatar Ruler for 200 years
mongol rule
Mongol Rule
  • Loose control of Russia
  • Russians paid tribute to Khan
  • Could manage their own affairs
  • Russian Princes wanted to unite,
  • Appealed to West for help—none came
mongol rule1
Mongol Rule
  • No help from West
  • Asian customs adopted
  • Women’s status declined
  • Slavs poor; few rights
  • Tatar words, clothing, architecture accepted
  • Autocracy
emergence of moscow
Emergence of Moscow
  • Moscow Princes gained favor from Tatars
  • Right to collect taxes
  • Moscow River replaces Dnieper as main trade route
  • 1299—Head of Russian Orthodox church moves to Moscow
  • Church became unifying factor for Russian People under Tatars
  • Moscow strongest and largest of small Russian states
  • Gains control over lesser Princes
ivan iii 1462 1505
Ivan III 1462-1505
  • Ivan the Great: Founder of Russian Nation State
  • 1st to use title “Tsar”
  • Refused to pay tribute to Tatars
  • Mongols divided; lost power

Ivan the Great (r. 1462-1505)

Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.

ivan iii 1462 15051
Ivan III 1462-1505
  • 1472: married Sophia, niece of last Byzantine emperor
  • Moscow becomes 3rd Rome—New holy city
  • Autocratic rule
serfdom in russia
Serfdom in Russia
  • Before Tatar invasion, serfs free to move around
  • Invasion destroyed: fields, animals, buildings
  • Peasants sold labor or promised part of their crops to get loans
serfdom in russia1
Serfdom in Russia
  • Poorest most vulnerable could not pay off debt
  • Debt serfdom replaced by legal serfdom
  • Serfs tied to land by law
  • Could not move
serfdom in russia2
Serfdom in Russia
  • As nobility grew, so did serfdom;
  • Labor laws passed
  • Peasants stayed on land and worked for landowners
  • Deadening effect on economy
  • Inefficient work
serfdom in russia3
Serfdom in Russia
  • Serfs not motivated as in West
  • Serfs poor
  • Whole nation affected
  • Lasts until 1861
ivan iv 1533 1584
Ivan IV 1533-1584
  • Grandson of Ivan III
  • Orphaned at age 8
  • Becomes Tsar at 17
  • Extended Russian boundaries and drove to Siberia
  • Destroyed power of Boyars
ivan iv 1533 15841
Ivan IV 1533-1584
  • Thousands executed
  • Kills Ivan, his oldest son
  • 1584—Russia stronger
time of troubles 1584 1613
Time of Troubles 1584-1613
  • Who will be heir?
  • Dmitri, child of Ivan’s 7th wife would not be recognized by the Church
  • Feodor was retarded; spent most of his time in prayer
time of troubles
Time of Troubles
  • Feodor ‘ruled’ 14 years
  • Boyars began fighting autocracy
  • Boris Godunov becomes regent
  • Defeated the Romanov family (killed many important members; they were still popular w/people)
time of troubles1
Time of Troubles
  • 1591: mysterious death—10-year old Dmitry is found dead, with his throat cut
  • Death ruled accidental: he was playing with a knife and had an epileptic seizure; killed himself
  • Was it Godunov?
time of troubles 1598
Time of Troubles 1598
  • Feodor dies w/out heir
  • Boris Godunov is elected Tsar by zemsky sobor
  • Godunov: popular, experienced in government, honorable
time of troubles2
Time of Troubles
  • Godunov tries to stabilize Russia: destroy boyars, rest of Romanovs
  • Favored enlightenment
  • Tried to set up university in Moscow—church balked
  • Sent students abroad to study
time of troubles3
Time of Troubles
  • 1601: Drought/famine hit Russia
  • Godunov tried to collect and redistribute food;
    • 1 million die
    • Armed mobs ravaged towns, looking for food
time of troubles4
Time of Troubles
  • Rumors spread that Dmitry was not really dead—they knifed the wrong boy
  • A young man appears and claims to be the true prince of Russia (False Dmitry I)
time of troubles5
Time of Troubles
  • False Dmitry I got recognition from Poland;
  • In exchange for support, he promised to make Russia Catholic once he takes the throne
time of troubles6
Time of Troubles
  • 1604: Polish Warriors, Cossacks, peasants support False Dmitry I; invade Russia
  • Boris Godunov fought, but with victory in sight, Godunov becomes sick and dies
  • 1605: False Dmitry entered Moscow—crowned Tsar
time of troubles7
Time of Troubles
  • False Dmitry reigned 13 months
  • Poles antagonized Muscovites, tried to make them submit to Catholicism
time of troubles8
Time of Troubles
  • Finally, Prince Vasily Shuisky organizes Russian soldiers, townsfolk
  • Slaughtered the Poles; executed False Dmitry; burned his remains
  • Stuffed them into a cannon and fired towards Poland
  • Elected Shuisky Tsar
time of troubles9
Time of Troubles
  • 1606-1613 Shuisky is a Boyar-Tsar: no power base
  • Ivan Bolotnikov led a mass revolt of Cossacks, runaway peasants, and vagabonds against all authority and property owners; reached Moscow before it was defeated
time of troubles10
Time of Troubles
  • Other Pretenders tried to take the throne: False Dmitry II—set up headquarters in Tushino: 2 Tsars w/equal followers
  • 1610 Shuisky deposed
  • False Dmitry II murdered over $
time of troubles11
Time of Troubles
  • Russia had no Tsar, no government
  • Ineffective Duma (led by boyars) tried to rule
  • Western claims made: Sweden, Poland seized territories
time of troubles12
Time of Troubles
  • Russian People rallied together: Begun in churches
  • “3rd Rome must not be allowed to fall to Catholic ‘heretics’ of the West”
time of troubles13
Time of Troubles
  • Citizens of Novgorod gave 1/3 of all possessions to finance crusade
  • Great national army formed: Marched on Moscow and wiped out the Polish garrison there
  • Neither Poland nor Sweden challenged it
time of troubles14
Time of Troubles
  • Zemsky Sobor elected new Tsar: 16 year old Michael Romanov
  • Acceptable to Muscovites and Cossacks: linked to Ivan IV by marriage
time of troubles ends
Time of Troubles ends
  • Michael is weak Tsar
  • Son Alexis and grandson Feodor III also weak
  • 1689: Peter I crowned Tsar