Workshop #2http://xlearners.wordpress.comRachel Karlsen Learning goals and discussions: Define/know the major components of the definition of specific learning disabilities Know the characteristics of students with learning disabilities and ADHD Comprehend the techniques to use in classroom to benefit students with learning disabilities Understand strategies to help students with ADHD Define Communication disorders
Scheduled Workshops • Workshop #1: December 6 • Workshop #2: December 13 • Workshop #3: January 3 • Workshop #4: January 10 • Workshop #5: January 17 • Workshop #6: January 24 • Workshop #7: January 31
Approximate Schedule • 6:00-7:00 Greeting, overview of class, review posters on wall, assignments due, discussion of reading • 7:00-7:30 Papers in file, Important Moments, Exit paper (participation points), quickwrite, notes on LD, ADHD, and Communication Disorders • 7:30-8:00 video: Understanding Learning Disabilities or How Difficult Can This Be? • 8:00-8:20 Break • 8:20-9:30 Group presentations (15-20 minutes each) • 9:30-9:45 Review of concepts, quickwrite, short activity • 9:45-10:00 Group work
Focus Questions What are the major components of the definition, criteria and characteristics of students with learning disabilities or ADHD? What information about a student with LD would you share at a multidisciplinary conference? What techniques and strategies could you incorporate into teaching to benefit students with LD or ADHD? What are communication disorders and in what areas might students have difficulty? What practices might you suggest to parents of a child with a language disorder to support their child’s communication?
Inspirational message • “I thank God for my handicaps for, through them, I have found myself, my work, and my God.” Helen Keller • Isaiah 40:31 (KJV)But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. • "Do all the good you can, in all the ways you can, to all the souls you can, in every place you can, at all the times you can, with all the zeal you can, as long as you ever can." John Wesley (early American evangelist)
Please note: • Each time I teach this course, I change some of the activities, instruction, ideas. • Ideas, laws and special education language is continually changing • The main concepts are on the powerpoints at http://xlearners.wordpress.com
Overview of class • Greeting (What is something you did today that made you happy/proud/excited?) • Questions about syllabus? • Introduce posters in class • Assignments due tonight • Assignments due next week • Reaction to readings……papers • Presentations (IDEA and the Law, Learning Disabilities, Communication Disorders, IEPs) • Quickwrite…Shift in Understanding • Understanding Learning Disabilities (video) • Accommodation Activities (PowerPoints that work, other) • ADHD defined • ADHD characteristics, recognize and identify symptoms • ADHD, classroom accommodations • Communication disorders • Distinguish between Speech and Language Disorders • Create accommodations for students with Speech and Language problems
What is something you did this week that made you happy/excited/proud?
Paper clip Activity • Take a paperclip out of the supply bins. • On a note card, write down as many uses for a paperclip as you can imagine. The paperclip can be any size, bent to any shape… • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U • Comments?
Communication with parents/students, using technology • you tube • Classroom websites, online grading systems • Moodle • Selected websites (purplemath; mathisfun; khanacademy.org, etc)
Be clear when you communicate and listen actively…. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSdxqIBfEAw
Questions/Review Syllabus? Expectations? Posters?
Assignments due tonight • 1. Read Chapters 6 and 7. Read Meadan, H., Monda-Amaya, L. (2008) • 3. Watch Freaks or another movie, which would meet the learning goal. Be ready to discuss how people with disabilities were treated before PL 94-142 and IDEA, comparing treatment of disabled individuals and their employment opportunities of the 1930s and the treatment and employment opportunities for disabled people today. Include societal morals and values and application to teachers and life. • 4. 15-30 minute group presentation on chosen topic (IDEIA and the Law, Learning Disabilities, Communication Disorders, and IEPs). Remember to include: an intro with learning goals, information/activities, class involvement and wrap up/assessment.
Assignments due next week • Mid-Term exam placed in folder (due in workshop four) • Reflection journal (about 3 pages, APA style) • Learning teams presentation: follow a lesson plan (intro with learning goals, information/activities, class involvement, wrap up/assessment) topics: a. Emotional/behavioral disorders, b. Autistic Spectrum Disorder c. Perfectionism/Anxiety (this is an additional topic) d. Time, space and classroom management ideas for meeting the needs of all learners (this is an additional topic) • Read chapters 8 and 9 (change from syllabus to fit new book) and More, C (2008) • Prepare to discuss EBDs and Autism • As time allows, begin working on final presentation
DooRiddles • Associative Reasoning Activities • Meant to teach fluency, originality, elaboration • Appropriate for grades 4-6 I’m the name of a plant, That’s shorter than a tree; Bigger than a flower, A President’s named me. What am I?
More DooRiddles I keep out all the flies, But let in all the air; Movies play upon me, While you just sit and stare. What am I?
…and one more…(p. 21) I’m smaller than a city, And I contain an O; And when you go to my down, Then you can see a show.
Reactions to Readings… • Thoughts? • Ideas? • Anything you’d like to share?
Reactions • Readings… • Choose a sentence from Chapter 6 that catches your attention. • Then…choose a phrase from the sentence that best conveys the intent of the sentence. • Choose the best word from the phrase. • Write a paragraph using all of the circled words.
Video discussion and project • Freaks….Music Within…Other… • Discuss main points and make a poster • Compare/contrast before and after PL 94-142 and IDEA • Employment opportunities for people with disabilities • Treatment • Application to Teachers and Life
Joy: Joyful learning can flourish in schools…Steven Wolk Jigsaw Activity Can be used with any grade level; mix ability levels. • Sort by A, B, C. Repeat. • All As combine; all Bs combine; all Cs combine (3ish per group). • Groups will read/discuss as marked on handout. • Re-group. One A, B, C in each group (there may be more than one, if count is uneven). • You are the expert……report what you read.
Typical questions and non-typical answers (Cognitive) 1. Name six animals which specifically live in the Arctic. Answer: 2 seals and 3, no, 4 polar bears. 2. How does Romeo’s character develop throughout the play? Answer: It doesn’t; it’s just self, self, self all the way through.
Questions and Answers (Executive Functioning) 1. Expand 2(x+y) Answer: 2 ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y )
Questions and Answers (last one) (Linguistic) • Name the wife of Orpheus, whom he attempted to save from the underworld. Answer: Mrs. Orpheus Bottom line: Assessments that are adapted for students with learning disabilities usually only look at physical and sensory barriers, but often fail to consider cognitive, linguistic, executive and affective barriers.
Presentations • Yellow/other sticky notes: feedback for each presenter; place on their mini-poster • Presentation Evaluation: comments and score returned next week (15-30 minutes; approx. 5 minutes per person…timer beeps) • IDEA and the Law • Learning Disabilities • Communication Disorders • IEPs
Video • Understanding Learning Disabilities • Also called “Learning Differences” • For tonight, this will be switched with “How Difficult Can This Be?”
Five Principles for Maintaining On-Task Behavior (other strategy ideas?)
Accommodations in the classroom • Manipulatives….hands on • Story map, guidelines, graphic organizers • Checklist (math, science, writing) • Handouts (review) • Reciprocal Reading (see handouts, changes/next slide)
Operational Guidelines for the Definition of SLD • Student does not achieve commensurate with their age and ability level in one or more specific areas when provided with appropriate learning experiences • Student has participated in but does not respond adequately to scientific, research-based intervention
Students not included in SLD category If deficit is the primary result of: • Visual, hearing or motor disability • Mental retardation • Emotional disturbance • Environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading
Major Components of Federal Definition of Learning Disabilities • Difficulty with academic learning tasks • Discrepancy between expected and actual achievement that can be documented through low RTI • Disorder in basic psychological processing • Exclusion of other causes
Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities • Unexpected difficulty or low performance in one or more academic areas • Ineffective or inefficient information-processing or learning strategies in area(s) of difficulty
Terms Related to Learning Disabilities • Dyslexia • Severe difficulty in learning to read, particularly with decoding and spelling • Dysgraphia • Severe difficulty learning to write, including handwriting • Dyscalculia • Severe difficulty learning mathematical concepts and computations
Reading, Writing and Mathematics difficulties and Students with LD • Reading difficulties are the most frequent characteristic of students with learning disabilities • Writing problems students with LD experience: • Handwriting, spelling, productivity, mechanics, organization, composition • Mathematics problems for students with LD include: • Basic math calculations and problem solving
Instructional Techniques and Accommodations for Students with LD • No one approach or technique is appropriate for all students • Common practices include: • Controlling task difficulties • Teaching in small groups (six or fewer) • Using graphic organizers or visual displays • Using combination of instruction strategies • Providing modeling and “think alouds” • Teaching students to self-monitor • Provide opportunities for practice and feedback
Instructional Principles • Using learning tools and aids • Adjusting workload and time • Presenting and having students demonstrate their learning in multiple ways • Teaching students to use memory strategies
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder –Myths and Misunderstandings • ADHD is not real and was made up by pharmaceutical communities • ADHD is a disorder that only affects young children • ADHD is overdiagnosed and many individuals who are labeled ADHD are not • ADHD is likely the result of overmedicating children • ADHD is a result of poor parenting
DSM-IV Desription of the Types of ADHD • ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type • ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type • ADHD, Combined Type • Students who display either or both of these characteristics can be identified as ADHD
Inattention Type of ADHD • Behavior consistent over six months • Consists of at least six of the following behaviors: • Failing to pay close attention to details and making careless mistakes that are inconsistent with child’s developmental level • Failing to sustain attention to tasks and/or play activities • Failing to listen, even when spoken to directly
Inattention Type ADHD-Continued • Failing to complete tasks • Having difficulty with organization • Resisting working on tasks that require sustained attention • Losing materials and objects • Becoming easily distracted • Being forgetful
Hyperactivity Type ADHD • Consistent (over six months) and highly inappropriate levels of the following: • Hyperactivity • Fidgeting or squirming • Having a difficult time remaining seated in class • Running or climbing excessively when it’s not appropriate • Having difficulty playing quietly • Talking too much • Acting as though “driven by a motor”
Impulsivity Type ADHD • Consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of the following: • Blurting out answers • Difficulty waiting for their turn • Interrupting others or butting into activities Onset of inattention and/or hyperactivity should be present before age 7 and in two or more separate settings.
Characteristics of Students with ADHD • Feeling fidgety and restless • Blurting out answers • Having poor sustained attention or vigilance and being easily distracted • Being impulsive or having poor delay of gratification • Being hyperactive • Exhibiting diminished rule-governed behavior • Having increased variability of task performance
Eligibility for Services and Sp Ed law • Two laws provide provisions for eligibility and services • IDEIA – mandates procedures for identifying students and how services should be provided and monitored • Section 504 – focuses on equity and access in all areas of life and does NOT detail how services are provided
Instructional Guidelines and Accommodations for Students with ADHD • Positive attitudes towards mainstreaming and inclusion of students with ADHD • Ability to collaborate as a member of a interdisciplinary team • Knowledge of behavior-management procedures • Use novelty in instruction and directions • Maintain a schedule • Prepare students for transitions and provide support • Emphasize time limits • Provide organizational assistance
Accommodations for Students...continued • Provide rewards consistently and often • Be brief and clear • Arrange environment to facilitate attention • Provide optimal stimulation • Allow for movement and postures other than sitting • Promote active participation through effective questioning techniques
Teacher’s Role in Monitoring Medication Teachers should work with parents and doctors to observe the following: • Changes in impulsivity, attention, activity level, frustration level, organizational skills, interest in school work, and behavioral inhibition • Changes in academic performance • Changes related to changes in medication dosage • Possible side effects (sleepiness, loss of appetite) • Duration of the medication dosage
In journal/other: Mystery picture activity-Barrier Game p. 112, modified (learning goal: practice transition words, following directions, communicate clearly) • First, about 1/3 way down your paper, draw two dots. They should be in line with each other and about 4 inches apart, centered on paper. • Next, starting at the left dot, draw a very large ‘u’, ending at the right dot. The ‘u’ should be centered on your paper with equal space above and below it. • Then, at the upper left point of the ‘u’, draw a small ‘c’. At the upper right point of the ‘u’, draw a backwards ‘c’ of the same size. • In addition, beginning at the top of the left ‘c’ and ending just above the backwards ‘c’, draw a constantly zig-zagging line in a slight upwards arch. The zigzags should be closely spaced, running up and down within a span of about 1 ½ inches. • Also, think about your starting dots. Imagine a straight line running across the paper and connecting them. Just below the imaginary line, draw two small ovals (slightly smaller than a dime), centered on paper and almost touching each other. • In the middle of these ovals, draw a blackened dot. • Below the center of the ovals, draw another ‘c’. • Finally, about an inch below this, draw a wide, sweeping arc that appears to be a smile.