“The Open Window” “The Interlopers” Saki
About the author • Saki is a pseudonym, or pen name, used by Hector Hugo Munro. • Saki was born in Burma, which is in Southern Asia, but after his mother died, he was sent to live with his aunts in England, and this is where he was educated. • He returned to Burma, where he was on the Burmese police force, but he was forced to resign because of illness. • In his twenties, Munro left for London to begin his writing career. • At first he was a journalist at the Westminster Gazzette, but eventually, he turned his focus to writing short stories. • At the beginning of WWI, Munro enlisted in the military and was killed in action. • Saki wrote novels and plays, but he was best known as one of England’s best satirists and short story authors.
Historical Background • WWI aka the “Great War” (1914-1918) was caused by political & economic rivalries. • In WWI, the Allies (England, France, Russia, and US) defeated the Central power(Germany & Austria-Hungary), and as a result of this war, the maps of Europe were redrawn. • Problems Europe faced after WWI included inflation, economic depression, and resentment over peace settlements. • Mussolini became the dictator of Italy, Stalin became the dictator of Russia, and Hitler controlled Germany. • Despite the wars of this time, there were many advancements in science and technology. For example, people lived longer, healthier lives because of new medications. • Problems also occurred because of these advancements, such as the development of powerful weapons that had the ability to destroy the human race. Also, advancements in industry polluted the environment.
Literary Background: Fiction in 20thcentury • New techniques and attitudes appeared in fiction and poetry at this time. • Fiction writers were concerned with exploring the inner lives of characters. • Themes were influence by negative feelings from the two world wars. Themes also presented ideas of loneliness, isolation, and attempts at communication. Another theme was the struggle to keep up with an ever-changing world. • Realism detailed the harshness of life. • Naturalism took realism further and objectively showed characters as helpless victims. • Magazines, Science fiction, detective fiction, and fantasy became popular.
“The Open Window” Lit terms • Inference – the process of making a logical guess based on given evidence. • Tone- The writer’s attitude toward his/her subject • Irony • Situational-the writer shows a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually happens. • Verbal- the writer says one thing, but means something entirely different. • Dramatic-the reader knows something that a character does not. • Characterization- Creating Believable Characters • Direct- learning about a character through what the author says about him/her • Indirect- learning about a character through what he/she does, says, thinks, feels, and what others say about him/her.
Setting- the time and place of a story • Point of view- refers to how the narrator tells the story • First person-A character in the story tells what happens • Third person limited-a narrator is not a character in the story, but is looking in describing what he/she sees • Third person omniscient- Narrator is not a character in the story, but is all-knowing and explains what the character sees, thinks, and feels • Mood- The feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader. Mood is created by an author’s word choice, selection of details, image, figurative language, and repetition. • Foreshadowing- Hints about future events • Satire-ridicules the foolishness or faults of society or a certain group of people.
Story Vocabulary • Duly- In a fitting manner • Discounting- To reduce in value; disregard • Communion- A sharing of feelings or thoughts. • Imminent- About to happen • Unduly- Excessively • Bog- Wet, marshy ground; swamp
“Interlopers” -Literary Terms • Inference- the process of making a logical guess based on given evidence. • Irony • Situational-the writer shows a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually happens. • Verbal- the writer says one thing, but means something entirely different. • Dramatic-the reader knows something that a character does not. • Conflict- struggle between opposing forces • Internal- A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. • External- A struggle with a force outside one's self, such as another character, nature, circumstances, or society. • Suspense- a feeling of uncertainty about the outcome of events, which keeps you interested in a story’s plot.
Story Vocabulary • Precipitous- steep; sheer • Acquiesced- agreed quietly without protest or enthusiasm. • Feud- a long and violent quarrel, especially between families. • Disputed- contested; argued about. • Condolences- an expression of sympathy with another in grief. • Interloper: people who intrude or meddle in other people’s business or life.