Introduction to Computers

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Section 4A. Introduction to Computers. Decimal Number System. Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available. Binary Number System. Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values. Bit. A combination of binary digit

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Section 4A

Introduction to Computers

Decimal Number System
• Called base 10 because 10 symbols are available
Binary Number System
• Computers function in base 2, or the binary number system, where there are only two values
Bit
• A combination of binary digit
• The smallest possible unit of data a computer can recognize or use
Byte
• A group of eight bits
Text Codes
• EBCDIC
• ASCII
• Unicode
CPU
• The CPU is the computer’s “brain” that manipulates data
CPU’s Two Basic Parts
• Control unit
• Arithmetic logic unit
Control Unit
• Manages all the computer’s resources
Arithmetic Logic Unit
• Performs the CPU’s arithmetic and logical operations
Machine Cycle
• The completed series of steps the CPU takes to execute an instruction
Machine Cycle’s Two Cycles
• Instruction cycle
• Execution cycle
Instruction Cycle
• Fetching
• Decoding
Execution Cycle
• Executing
• Storing
Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS)
• The CPU performance measurement
Pipelining
• Also called pipeline processing
• The control unit begins a new machine cycle before the current cycle is completed
Memory
• Allows the CPU to store and retrieve data quickly
Two Kinds of Memory
• Random-access memory (RAM): volatile
ROM
• ROM always holds the same data, for example the computer’s start-up instructions
RAM
• RAM’s job is to hold programs and data while they are in use
• RAM can change instantly
Other Kinds of RAM
• Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
• DRAM Variations
• Static RAM (SRAM)
Factors Affecting Processing Speed
• Registers
• Memory and computing power
• System clock
• The bus
• The databus
• Cache memory
Bus Types
• Industry standard architecture (ISA) bus
• Local bus
• Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus
• Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) bus
• Universal Serial Bus (USB)
• IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
Data Transfer Rate
• The amount of data buses can transfer in a second
• Measured in megabits per second (Mbps) or megabytes per second (MBps)
Cache memory
• Speeds processing by storing frequently used data or instructions in its high-speed memory
Section 4A
• Transforming Data Into Information