Cells cannot be seem by unaided eyes. • The first microscope were invented during the Renaissance and were improved during the 17th century. • There are different types of microscope that were used to see objects and materials of the range from 100um to .1nm.
Light Microscope (LMs) Electron Microscope (EMs) Scanning electron Microscope (SEM)- scans the surface of object range from100 um to .1nm. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) – scan the internal untrastructure of cells. • The lenses refract or bend the light in a way that it is projected into the eye. • Range from 1cm to 100nm
What is cell fractionation???? The process of separating the cell from it’s organelles The most powerful machine that is used in this process is called ultracentrifuge.
The nucleus houses most of the cell’s DNA. • Most conspicuous organelle in eukaryotic cells. • It is enclosed by a nuclear envelope separating it from cytoplasm. • The nuclear envelope is a double membrane, each lipid bilayer with associated proteins. • The envelope is perforated by pores and each pores of in the inner and outer nuclear envelope are continuous. • Pore complex regulate substances that comes in and out of the nuclear envelope. • The nuclear envelope is lined with netlike array of protein filament that maintain it’s shape and supporting the nuclear envelop is called the nuclear lamina. • Within the nucleus there are chromosomes. • Each chromosomes are made up of chromatin. • When the cell is prepared to divide it coil up and separate into chromosomes. • Within the nucleus, lies the nucleolus. • Ribosomal RNA is being synthesized that exits the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes are used to make proteins • Ribosomes are made from ribosomal RNA and proteins, and carry out protein synthesis. • Ribosomes are not enclosed in membranes. • Ribosomes build proteins in two cytoplasmic locales. • There are two types of ribosomes: Free ribosomes and bound ribosomes. • Free Ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol. • Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope. • Most of the proteins are made of free ribosomes. • Bound ribosomes make proteins that are destined either insertion or for export from the cell.
Different membrane in eukaryotic cells are part of the endomembrane system that carries out variety of tasks in the cell. • Relate through direct physical continuity or transfer of membrane segments as tiny vesicles. • The endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and plasma membrane.
Account more than half of the membrane in eukaryotic cells. • Consist of tubules and sacs called cristernae. • ER lumen separate the internal compartment of the ER. • Two kinds of distinct: Rough ER and Smooth ER • Smooth ER lack ribosomes. • Rough ER contain ribosomes.
Functions in diverse metabolic processes. Such as synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrate, and detoxification of drugs and poison. • The enzyme help synthesis, metabolize, and detoxifies. • Steroids are produced the smooth ER. • Detoxification happens often in the liver cells. • It involve adding hydroxyl groups to drugs, making them easier to flush through the body. • Stores calcium ions (occurs in muscle cells). • EX: smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol to the ER lumen. When the muscle cell stimulates by nerves pulses, calcium ion rush back across the ER into the cytosol and trigger contraction of the muscle cell.
Specialized cells that secrete proteins are produced by the ribosomes in the rough ER. • Most of the secreted proteins are glycoproteins. • Once secretory proteins are formed in the ER, the membrane keep them separated from proteins and ribosomes that remains in the cytosol. • Then tiny membranous sacs in the cell of the cytoplasm carries to the molecules that are produced by the cell called transport vesicles. • Rough ER makes it’s own phospholipids because the enzymes that are built into the ER membrane assemble phospholipids from the precursors in the cytosol.
Transport vesicle travel through the Golgi apparatus. • Product of the ER are modified and stored and sent to other organelles. • Consist of flattened membranous sacs, look like stacks of pita bread. • Vesicle concentrated in the vicinity of the Golgi apparatus are engaged in the transfer of material between the parts of the Golgi. • Golgi stack are polar to the membrane of the cristernae. • The two poles are cis face and trans face. • Cis face is located near the ER that transport vesicle material from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. • Vesicle buds from the ER add membrane and lumen to the cis face by fusing with a Golgi membrane. • Trans face give rise to vesicle that pinches off and travels to other sites. • Manufacture certain macromolecules.
It is a membrane sac if hydrolytic enzymes that animal cell uses to digest macromolecules. • Work best in acidic environments. • If lysosomes break open they are not active anymore because the cytosol become neutral and if it leak too much then it destroys a cell. • It is made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus. • Some arise from budding from trans face of the Golgi apparatus. • It carries out digestions and recycle it’s own organic material a process called autophagy. • autophagy occurs when a damaged organelle or cytosol become surrounded by a membrane, lyososme fuses with the vesicle and the enzyme dismantle the material and organic monomers and the cell renew itself.
Vacuole carry out hydrolysis that is similar to lyososmes. • Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis. • Fresh water protists have contractile vacuole, a membranous ac that helps move excess water out of certain cells • Mature plant cells contain large central vacuoles enclosed my a membrane called tonoplast. • Central vacuole is developed by smaller vacuoles derived from the ER and Golgi apparatus. • Tonoplast is selective in transporting solute. • Plant vacuole holds important organic compounds and plants main repository of organic ions. • Major role in growth that enlarge as their vacuole absorb water.
it is the site of cellular respiration • Create ATP for the cell • It is called the power house because it create energy or ATP for the cell. • They are found in every eukaryotic cells. • It is enclosed by two membranes, each a phospholipids bilayer with unique embedded protein. • The outer membrane is smooth but the inner layer is convoluted embedded with cristae. • The inner membrane divide the membrane into two internal compartment, • The first internal membrane contain space and is the region between inner and outer membrane. • The second is the compartment called the mitochondrial matrix that is enclosed by the inner membrane. • The matrix contain many enzyme that carries out cellular respiration.
it is present in plant cell that give rise to the process called photosynthesis. • Convert solar energy to chemical energy. • Contain green pigment chlorophyll with enzyme and molecules that help function in the photosynthetic production of sugar. • Consist of two membrane with a very narrow intermembrane space, • Inside the membrane there are interconnect sac called thylakoid, • When they thylakoid are stack together they are called granum. • The fluid inside the thylakoid are is stroma which contain chloroplast DNA and ribosomes. • The membrane are divided into three compartment and they are intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoid space.
Specialized metabolic compartment by a single membrane. • It contain enzyme that transfers hydrogen substances to oxygen, • Uses oxygen to break down fatty acid into smaller molecules that can be transported to the mitochondria that are used to fuel cellular respiration. • Specialized peroxisome are called glyoxysomes that are found in the fat stored tissues of plant seeds. • They do not bud from the en endomembrane system, instead they grow larger by incorporating protein made primarily in the cytosol lipids made from ER.
Cytoskeletons are network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. • Play a major role in organizing the structure and activities of the cell and composed of three types of molecular structure called microtubules, microfilament, and intermediate filament. Continue
Important for animal cells because it lack cell wall. • More dynamic in animal cells than plant cells. • It quickly dismantled in one part of the cell and reassembled in a new location. • Regulate biochemical activities in the cell.
A hollow tube with walls consist of 13 columns of tubulin molecules such as compression-resisting grider. • Function as to maintain cell shape and cell motility. Help chromosomes move during cell division. • Responsible for cell movement. • Grow from centrosomes, located near the nucleus. • Within the centrosomes there are pairs of centrioles. • Responsible for beating of flagella and cilia.
It has two intertwined strand of actin, each a polymer of actin subunits. • Main function to maintain cell shape such as tension bearing elements, changes in cell shapes, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility such as in pseudopodia, and cell division in cleavage furrow formation.
It is made up of fibrous protein super coiled into a thicker cable. • Main function is to maintain cell shape such as tension bearing elements, anchorage of the nucleus and certain organelles, and formation of nuclear lamina.
Plant cells • Cell wall • Primary wall • Middle lamella • Secondary wall
CELL WALL • Cell wall help distinguish between animal and plant cell • Help maintains shape of the cell and prevent excessive uptake of water PRIMARY WALL • Occurs in young plants • Between the primary wall there is a middle lamella that glue and adjacent cell together. SECONDARY WALL • When the plant grow older and mature it grows a secondary wall between the plasma membrane and primary membrane. • Strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support.
Extracellular Anima cells Extracellular matrix (ECM) – help support the cell and giving it shape. Collagen fiber- form strong fiber outside the cell Prooteoglycan -glycoprotein Fibranectin- attaches to the ECM glycoprotein. Integrin – built into the plasma membrane that bind on their cytoplasmic side to associated proteins attaching to the microfilament of the cytoskeleton.
Intercellular junctions Plant: plasmodesmata • Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and connect chemical environment of adjacent cell and help unify plant into one living continuum. Animal: tight junction, desmosomes and gap junction • Common in epithelial cells • (Next slide for more information)
Cites • http://dic.academic.ru/pictures/enwiki/77/Microscope_de_HOOKE.png • http://www.bio21.unimelb.edu.au/assets/image/1188543983-fei_tecnai_f30_trans_em.jpg • http://www.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp/CLRE/img/biochem_gif/u-cent-mini-top.gif • http://www.makehumans.com/images/wikimages/350px-Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg.png • http://www.vcharkarn.com/uploads/59/59679.png • http://wps.aw.com/wps/media/objects/1668/1708348/ebook/htm/campbell7e.htm?06.03 • https://illnessesanimalsplants.wikispaces.com/file/view/smooth_&_rough_ER.jpg • http://wps.aw.com/wps/media/objects/1668/1708348/ebook/htm/campbell7e.htm?06.03 • http://wps.aw.com/bc_campbell_biology_7/25/6655/1703824.cw/index.html • http://wps.aw.com/wps/media/objects/1668/1708348/ebook/htm/campbell7e.htm?06.04