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Comparison of Occupational Exposure to Carbon Disulphide in a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment. Petar Bulat et al. Institute of Occupational Health, Belgrade Yugoslavia Department of Public Health, University of Gant, Belgium

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Comparison of Occupational Exposure to Carbon Disulphide in a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

Petar Bulat et al.

Institute of Occupational Health, Belgrade Yugoslavia

Department of Public Health, University of Gant, Belgium

Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Volume 17(1):334-38, 2002


Study objective l.jpg
Study Objective a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Measure personal exposures to carbon disulfide in order to follow-up and verify the effect of technical modifications on worker exposures in selected departments and job titles of a viscose factory


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Study approach a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Characterize exposure for different job titles by establishing TWA ambient concentrations and to compare those measurements with data obtained in a previous study. Differences in exposure between the two studies reflect the efficacy of the introduced technical improvements.


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Carbon Disulfide - Chemistry a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • CS2;

    • highly volatile liquid

    • MW = 76.14

    • Sp. G. = 1.263

    • VP = 300 mmHg @ 20 degree C

    • Explosive 1-50% v/v in air


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CS a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment2 Exposure Guidance

  • OSHA

    • 20 ppm; C 30 ppm

  • ACGIH

    • TWA-TLV 10 ppm (31 mg/m3)

    • Skin

    • BEI 5 mg/g creatinine

  • NIOSH

    • 1 ppm; 10 ppm/15 minutes


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CS a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment2 Health effects - general

  • Neurological

  • Cardiovascular

  • Ophthalmological

  • Endocrinological

  • Nephrological

  • Gastrointestinal

  • Reproductive dysfunction


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Sampling – where and who a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • 3 departments

    • Viscose preparation

      • Viscose preparator

    • Spinning

      • Spinner

      • First spinner

      • Day shift

      • Maintenance

    • Bleaching

      • Bleaching department


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Technical Adjustments a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical AdjustmentViscose Prep. Dept.

  • General

    • Improve exhaust ventilation

  • Personal

    • New type of fresh air RPE for viscose preparator for entering churns


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Technical Adjustments a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical AdjustmentSpinning Dept.

  • General

    • Enclosures and exhaust ventilation

      • spinning machines

      • freshly spun cakes

      • waste bins

  • Personal

    • RPE

      • Fresh air mask

        • Spinner and 1st spinner

        • Compulsory with spinning machines open

      • Half face piece

        • Day shift spinner and maintenance worker

        • Compulsory when in spinning room


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Technical Adjustments a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical AdjustmentBleaching Dept.

  • General

    • Too numerous and substantial to document

  • Personal

    • None given


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Sampling and Analytical a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Personal sampling pumps

    • 100 ml/min

    • Pre & post calibrated

      • Samples with > 10% difference discarded

    • Total sample volume <= 25 L

  • Gas/vapor sampling tubes

    • Charcoal tubes – 400 mg/200 mg

    • Serially connected to drier tube


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Sampling and Analytical a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Tube handling post sampling

    • Ends capped

    • Mailed in refrigerated box

  • Laboratory

    • Held frozen at –70 deg. C

    • Used NIOSH method 1600

      • Desorption of tubes

      • GC mass spectrometry analysis


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Data Integrity and Analysis a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • A priori data culling

    • Per & post sample flow rate change of >10%

    • Backup section => 10% of front section

  • Statistical parameters

    • Geometric mean

    • 95 % CI

  • SPSS/PC+


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Two types of Personal Samples Collected a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Outside the respirator

    • Shoulder or collar

  • Inside the respirator

    • Taped to cheek – fresh air RPE

    • Attached to a probe on the half face piece RPE

    • Sampled continuously RPE on or off


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Sampling Data a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment


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Results – Job titles a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Found changes in job activity vs. job titles between the two studies

    • Viscose preparator, spinner and first spinner were comparable

    • Day shift spinner, maintenance and bleaching department were different


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Results – exposures(mg/m a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment3)


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Results – exposures(mg/m a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment3)


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Discussion a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Spinner and viscose preparator jobs very regimented and fixed -partial shift sample OK

  • 60% capacity this campaign vs. full capacity on previous study


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Conclusions a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Significant decrease in worker exposure from

    • Enclosing and ventilating spinning machines and spun cake tables

    • Wearing RPE

    • Work organization


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Conclusions a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Adjustments could be recommended in other viscose rayon factories to reduce CS2 exposures after careful study of local production process


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Problems a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Sample length on variable, non- repetitive job titles

  • No documentation of RPE wear time

  • Day shift spinners only sampled during work on spinner machines thus overestimating their daily exposure since that task was small part of total work activity.


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Problems a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • No reported measure of variability

    • Limits use of data by other researchers or other purposes

  • No statement of confidence on GM even though stated as one of the calculations done

  • Individual exposure data not reported

  • No reported use of sample blanks

  • Was best sampling strategy used


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Lessons learned a Viscose Rayon Factory Before and After Technical Adjustment

  • Always carefully describe work activity associated with a job title

  • Always state a priori reasons for culling data samples

  • Play close attention to sampling methods

  • Do and report what you say