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Chapter 12: Work Motivation Learning Objectives • Explain five critical concepts central to work motivation . • Understand the conceptual basis and degree of empirical support for these work motivation theories: expectancy , goal-setting , self-regulation, and work design.
• Explain five critical concepts central to work motivation.
• Understand the conceptual basis and degree of empirical support for these work motivation theories: expectancy, goal-setting, self-regulation, and work design.
• Understand the concept of work engagement.
• Provide an overview and synthesis of the work motivation theories.
• Give practical examples of applying motivational strategies.
• Work motivation is one of the most fundamental and critical issues in understanding the way people behave in organizations.
• Motivation is a very complex topic, and various theories have been proposed to explain why people behave as they do.
• One set of theories posits that people differ in their motivation because of innate personality differences, perhaps of a genetic origin.
• The expectancy theory of motivation posits that individuals establish a linkage between what they want to attain, how well they must perform to get what they want, and how hard they must work to perform at that level.
• The goal-setting theory of motivation states that people intentionally set goals for themselves and then direct their behavior to attain the desired goal.
• A set of theories pertaining to the self-regulation theory of motivation assert that people set goals for themselves and then engage in a process of self-monitoring. The feedback they receive tells them whether they are “on target” in achieving their goals, and then they will adjust their effort and behavior accordingly.
• The work design theory of motivation posits that the capacity for motivation lies not within people but within the work environment. Jobs can be designed in a way that motivates the people who perform them.
• Work engagement is a hybrid explanation of work motivation that draws upon many other theories in I/O psychology.
• The various theories of work motivation offer practical techniques that can be applied to enhance motivation.
• Recent research on motivation is directed toward understanding the process by which people adapt to their ever-changing jobs.