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Johne’s Disease and Your Herd. Culpeper Co. VCE Field Day, July 22, 2004, Cool Lawn Holsteins Presentation by Drs. Gillian and Patrick and Ms. Caroline Comyn. Photo credit Dr. Frank Garry, from presentation on 2004 USAHA Johne’s CD.

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johne s disease and your herd

Johne’s Disease and Your Herd

Culpeper Co. VCE Field Day,

July 22, 2004, Cool Lawn Holsteins

Presentation by Drs. Gillian and Patrick and Ms. Caroline Comyn

Photo credit Dr. Frank Garry, from presentation on 2004 USAHA Johne’s CD

photo credits dr mike collins dr elizabeth manning u wi usaha 2003 meeting and other presentations
Photo credits: Dr. Mike Collins; Dr. Elizabeth Manning U-WI, USAHA 2003 Meeting and other presentations
  • Johne’s is a slow progressing often fatal disease of the intestine that affects ruminants
johne s disease
Johne’s Disease
  • Named after Heinrich Johne
    • along with an American colleague diagnosed the first (recorded) case of “pseudotuberculosis enteritis”
    • 1894/95 in Germany
    • AKA Paratuberculosis
    • (slide from Dr. Ernest Hovingh’s Johne’s presentation)

credit: M. Collins

johne s disease1
Johne’s Disease

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: same family as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)

Both are slow to grow

Both cause chronic severe disease

other map characteristics
Other MAP characteristics

Grows slow in culture

Stay weeks to months in the environment

  • spread manure
  • lagoons
  • ponds
  • Rivers

More resistant to chlorination, pasteurization than a lot of other bacteria

slide6

Build up barriers to infectionBREAK THE JOHNE’S CYCLE

5.Colostrum and milk

3. Feed and water

4.Infection

2. Direct Contact

1. Maternity/Newborn

Graphic design by Drs. C A Rossiter Burhans/B J Tefft; slide credit Dr. Don Hansen, Johne’s and Beyond CD, USAHA 2004

slide7

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/animalsimages.new.htmhttp://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/animalsimages.new.htm

slide8

Photo credit Dr. Mike Collins, Volume 56 (12) : “Update on paratuberculosis:Pathology and diagnosis”, December, 2003, Irish Veterinary Journal

credits c a rossiter burhans b j tefft usaha meeting presentation 2003 johne s and beyond cd 2004
Credits: C A Rossiter Burhans/B J Tefft, USAHA Meeting Presentation 2003, Johne’s and Beyond CD 2004
clinical johne s disease stage 4
“Clinical” Johne’s DiseaseStage 4

Photograph Credits:

Dr. Mike Collins

www.johnes.org

tests for johne s
Tests for Johne’s
  • Look for antibodies to MAP in Blood Serum (ELISA, AGID)
  • Look for MAP organism – culture feces or tissues; “PCR”; under the microscope
  • Up and coming? ”gamma interferon”, skin tests…
johne s disease is costly to dairymen in the us
Johne’s Disease is costly to Dairymen in the US!
  • Economic
  • Trade
  • High prevalence in US herd
  • Human Disease?
dairy herd level losses
Dairy Herd-level Losses

Groenendaal 1999

Slide credit: Dr. Larry Hutchinson Penn State, Johne’s and Beyond CD, USAHA 2004

dairy herd production losses
Dairy Herd Production Losses

Significantly lower 305d milk production for cows with positive JD ELISA test when all lactations pooled

Significantly lower production in 1st and 5th lactation; not significantly lower in 2nd and 4th lactation cows

Van Leeuwen 2002

Slide credit: Dr. Larry Hutchinson Penn State “Johne’s and Beyond” CD 2004

is there a connection

Johne's

and

Crohn's

Is there a connection?

Slide credit Dr. Don Hansen, Oregon State University, Johne’s and Beyond CD, 2004, USAHA

crohn s johne s
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammation of the intestines in humans, often fatal.

MAP found in some Crohn’s patients - evidence +/- that MAP is the culprit.

Certain symptoms and pathology similar to Johne’s

Effective treatment?

Johne’s Disease is a chronic inflammation of the ileum in ruminants, often fatal

Johne’s is caused by MAP

Certain clinical signs and pathology similar to Crohn’s

No (cost) effective treatment

Credits: Dr. Mike Carter 2002 Crohn’s presentation – VS Library

Crohn’s ↔Johne’s
vjdcpp
VJDCPP
  • This is a voluntary program!!! Receives cooperative agreement funding
  • Education is the first step
  • Different levels of participation
  • Management and Test Negative Levels
  • How to enroll? Risk Assessment and Herd Plan 
slide20

3

1

2

4

Test Negative Status

TEST

ELISA 30

≥ 30 months of age

ELISA

Subset

Culture

Subset

ELISA

Subset

?

85%

95%

98%

99%

Herd Status Level

Test Negative Status Level means more likely free of Johne's disease – not “certified free!”

slide21

Dr. M. Collins et al, www.johnes.org

Drs. Stephen Ott and Scott Wells USDA and University of MN, Johne’s and Beyond, USAHA 2004

slide22

Drs. Stephen Ott and Scott Wells USDA and University of Minnesota, from USAHA “Johne’s and Beyond” CD, 2004

other states
Other States?
  • In WI, NY, KY –other states are starting to follow suit - starting to “J-Punch” ears on Johne’s MAP positive cows
  • The purpose of this is to prevent infected cattle from being sold to unsuspecting buyers. (From U WI’s Johnes.org page)
good sense management practices dairy
Good Sense Management Practices - Dairy

Colostrum - use single identified test-negative or healthy low-risk cow; no pooling

Milk - use milk replacer or pasteurized milk

Age segregation – decreases exposure to MAP

Clinical Suspects – Separate and Record

more good sense practices
More Good Sense Practices

Prevent New Infections!!

Maternity area - clean and dry, low density as possible, keep separate from sick pen

Newborn calves - immediately separate from dam, other adults

Herd additions – buy from “known status” herds, test before bringing onto the farm

control other diseases
Control other diseases
  • Good Sense Management Practices that guard against MAP will also reduce the risk for other microbes such as… E. coli, Salmonella and Cryptosporidia

slide credit Dr. Don Hansen, Oregon State University, Johnes and Beyond CD, 2004, USAHA

prevention is better than control
Because this infection is difficult to detect, keep it out of your herd! Prevention is better than control !

“Don’t test, don’t tell” is not a winning strategy !Slide credit: Dr. Elizabeth Manning, U-WI – Johne’s and Beyond CD USAHA 2004

questions
Questions?

Photo credit http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/animalsimages.new.htm