Human Muscle Modeling using Generalized Cylinders for Volume Considerationss - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Human Muscle Modeling using Generalized Cylinders for Volume Considerationss

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Human Muscle Modeling using Generalized Cylinders for Volume Considerationss
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Human Muscle Modeling using Generalized Cylinders for Volume Considerationss

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  1. Human Muscle Modeling using Generalized Cylinders for Volume Considerationss SK Semwal Bill Watson Debra McCullough University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

  2. Topics of Presentation • Introduction and Background • Generalized Cylinders • Volume Considerations • Results • Conclusions

  3. Introduction • Need: • Long standing research problem • Generalized cylinders: simple and intuitive • Volume considerations for muscles • Intersection with adjacent muscles/bones lead to suitable deformations

  4. Previous Work • Since 1968 • Chen-Zeltzer - Biomechanical • Badler’s work – human body • Nadia and Daniel Thalmann – human body • Semwal and Dow’s GC Muscle models

  5. Generalized Cylinders • Shani and Ballard • Set of cross sections • Set of generalized axis • Dow and Semwal • Model upper and lower arm using GCs

  6. Extensions • Leg Musles • Polygons. NURBS, Shades choices • Animation sequences – leg exercises • Tension on the muscles • Speech recognition front-end • Models contraction/deformations using volume

  7. Models • Femur or thigh bone – longest and heaviest bone – hip to tibia • Tibia or shin bone – next heavy bone transfers the weight to ankles from hip • Fibula – parallel to tibia on the outside lateral – attached to several muscles – acts a pulley to tendons behind ankle

  8. Generalized Cylinders • Model 2D planar contours from Medical Books (Tortara, Gardner and Cated • Define these 2D planar contours along GC axis • NURBS defined using n points on contours • Rendered on SGI/OpenGL code

  9. Intersection Testing and Intersection Resolution • Use cross sections • Move the intruding point away from the adjacent muscle/bones polygonal area between contours • Volume • Two cross sections Aavg = (Ai + Ai+1)/2 • Distance between the two GC-axis point for the two cross sections • Volume between two cross sections = Aavg * d • Repeat for all cross sections pair for that GC

  10. Deformation • pct_chg = (curr_vol - init_vol) / init_vol • rel_chg = (cum_sum (curr_vol - init_vol))/cum_sum • rel_change acts as a guide based upon tolerance in changing the cross section points • Points next to bone and other muscle not modified

  11. Results • Precise timing can be achieve • Smoothing introduces “lag”

  12. Results

  13. Summary • GC model provided a good method for modeling bones and muscles • Volume considerations allow good deformation effects • Biomechanical analysis and animation

  14. Future Work • Model animations • Realistic biomechanical based rendering • Automatic detection from CT data and creating GCs

  15. End