Handwriting: Best Practices Debbie Shatrowsky/Occupational Therapist - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Handwriting: Best Practices Debbie Shatrowsky/Occupational Therapist

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  1. Handwriting:Best PracticesDebbie Shatrowsky/Occupational Therapist

  2. Ergonomics • 90° rule- hips, knees, ankles • Trunk, neck and head vertically aligned • Wrist in slight extension (neutral) • Desktop 1” to 2” above elbow when seated • Paper angled- right handed/right corner up, left handed/left corner up

  3. Looking Out For Lefties • Preventing the “hook” • Left corner of paper elevated, okay for student to have an exaggerated slant • Left handed writers will sometimes pull into their hand which causes them to write from right to left, this is okay to allow

  4. Left handed • Slant left corner up • Okay to have exaggerated slant

  5. Right handed • slant right corner up

  6. Pencil Grip Developmental sequence • Palmer 1- 2 years of age • Digital pronate- 2 to 3 years of age • Transitional Grips • Static tripod- 3 ½ to 4 years of age • Dynamic or quadrupod - 4 ½ to 6 years of age

  7. Efficient Writing Grips Dynamic Tripod Quadrupod Adapted Tripod

  8. Inefficient Grips

  9. Correcting Grip Twist N Write Pencil- Office Depot, Educate and Celebrate, Amazon Handiwriter- therapy shoppe.com Grotto Crossover Jumbo Big Grip Claw Grip Grips available at Educate and Celebrate or therapyshoppe.com

  10. Slant board • To decrease wrist flexion • Visual difficulties

  11. Developmental Sequence of Prewriting • Imitation-vertical, horizontal, circle • Copying ~ 2yr.10mo. vertical ~ 3 horizontal and circle ~ 4 to 4 yr. 11 mo. cross, diagonals, and X ~ 5 yrs. 3 mo. triangle (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration)

  12. Developmental Approach to Handwriting • Handwriting Without Tears® L F E H I – Verticals and horizontals U C O Q G S J D P B- lines and curves R K A V M N W X Y Z- diagonals Uses a sensory motor approach

  13. Promoting Development of Fine-Motor Skills • Sensory motor approach • Whole arm to promote motor planning-air writing • Wet sponge • Strengthening- incorporate pinching activities: clothes pins, strawberry hullers for sorting small objects, cutting play-dough snakes, poker chip or bingo chip activities • Parents- encourage wheel barrel walking with their child (fingers facing forward)

  14. Promoting Proper Stroke, Number and Letter Formation • Model sound handwriting behaviors • Reading and writing follow the same basic patterns - top to bottom, left to right • Orally describe the pattern when introducing and practicing letter formation (big line, little line, big curve, little curve)

  15. Promoting Proper Formation • Stress correct starting point and formation of letters i.e. large writing on chalkboard, wet-dry-try, etc. • Make sure the tool size is proportional to the hand size • Forget the dot-to-dot use whole strokes when practicing writing

  16. Wet Dry Try Adult writes letter Student erases with wet sponge, dries, and then writes

  17. Ideas for fine-motor centers

  18. Teach letter sequencing and letter sounds with this poker chip alphabet sequencing activity and Leap Frog Fridge Phonics

  19. Filo from Beyond Play $25.

  20. Lakeshore products $60

  21. Lakeshore Products Alphabet Rubbing Plates $19.95

  22. HWTs Products

  23. HWTs Square Block Paper

  24. Integrating Handwriting and Reading Programs Option 1: Separate the handwriting and reading sequence (remind students when letters and sounds have been previously taught) Option 2: Integrate the handwriting and reading sequence (when introducing letter formation also introduce the sound/s and when introducing letter sounds use direct instruction for learn letter formation) Option 3: Follow the reading sequence when introducing letter names and formation (Leanne Meisinger/Learning Specialist CCPS)

  25. When teaching handwriting keep in mind the basic principles of UDL and the four major channels of learning: • Visual learnerslearn through seeing. • Auditorylearnersprefer to listen • Tactilelearners like to use their fine-motor skills when learning • Kinestheticlearners need to use their bodies in the learning process. They need to “do”. They are hands-on learners. • http://www.cast.org/udl/

  26. Resources • Amazon.com • Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration 6th Ed. • Beyond Play- Products for Early Childhood and Special Needs (beyondplay.com) • ccpsatot.wikispaces.com • Educate and Celebrate (http://www.learning-experts.com) • Handwriting Without Tears (hwtears.com) • Lakeshore Learning Materials (lakeshorelearning.com) • Leap Frog Products • Office Depot • Meisinger, Leanne /Learning Specialist CCPS • Therapyshoppe.com • UDL Principles (http://www.cast.org/udl/)