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CSCE 3 13 Embedded System Design. Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of South Carolina. Syllabus Highlights. Instructor’s Info zhangf@cse.sc.edu SWGN 3A15 7-5872 Office Hour: Mon Wed 2pm-3:30pm or by appointment. About this course. Text

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csce 3 13 embedded system design
CSCE 313 Embedded System Design

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of South Carolina

syllabus highlights
Syllabus Highlights
  • Instructor’s Info
    • zhangf@cse.sc.edu
    • SWGN 3A15
    • 7-5872
    • Office Hour: Mon Wed 2pm-3:30pm or by appointment
about this course
About this course
  • Text
    • T. Noergaard, Embedded Systems Architecture: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineers and Programmers, Elsevier, 2005
  • Exam
    • One exam
    • Closed book
    • No makeup without valid reasons and prearrangement with instructor
  • Homework
about this course1
About this course
  • Projects
    • Two types
      • instructor designed with substantial guidance
      • mainly by yourselves
    • Team work
    • Grading
      • Demonstration
      • Reports
  • Supplementary readings
about this course2
About this course
  • Grading
    • 15% homework, 20% exam + quizzes, 65% projects
  • Academic Dishonesty
  • Academic Courtesy
    • No chatting, cell phone, food/drink please
about this course3
About this course
  • Prerequisites
    • CSCE211/CSCE212
  • Things you should already know
    • Digital logic design
      • Number representation
        • 2’s complement (int and fp)
      • Binary arithmetic
        • add, subtract, shift, multiply, division,
      • Combinational logic
        • and, or, xor, nand, nor, mux, …
      • Sequential logic
        • Flip-flops, registers
      • Read/draw a schematic
about this course4
About this course
  • Things you should have already known
    • Basic computer organization
      • Instruction execution
      • Simple assembly programming
      • Processor/memory/buses
    • Programming
      • C/C++
      • Compilation and debugging
topics
Topics
  • The principles of embedded system design and its challenges
  • Embedded hardware architecture
  • Embedded software development
  • Hardware/software interfacing and debugging
  • Processes and operating systems
  • Advanced design techniques
  • Other topics such as (low power design and real-time computing) may be covered
things you will learn
Things you will learn
  • What is the embedded system and how to design such systems
  • Practical skills and experiences
    • Commercial design softwares
      • Quartus II, Nios II IDE
    • Commercial hardware evaluation board
      • Altera DE2 board
embedded system design
Embedded System Design
  • When we talk about the computing system
    • PC
    • Laptop
    • Workstation
    • Mainframe
    • Super Computers …
  • In fact, computing systems are everywhere …
computing systems are everywhere

…wake up …

  • …have breakfast …
  • …set home safety system …
Computing systems are everywhere
examples in your daily life cont

…get into your car …

Examples In Your Daily Life (cont’)
  • A late model car can have as many as 65+ processors for engine control, A/C control, cruise control, ABS, audio, etc
  • More than 30% of the cost of a car is now in electronics
  • 90% of all innovations will be based on electronic systems
examples in your daily life cont1
Examples In Your Daily Life (cont’)
  • …on your way to your office…
examples in your daily life cont3
Examples In Your Daily Life (cont’)
  • …back home …

Several hundred processors can be involved in the courseof one day for one person !

other examples
Other Examples
  • Mission critical controls
    • Nuclear plant control, aircraft navigation, military equipment
  • Medical equipment
  • Communications
  • Toy, etc

Embedded systems have been deeply ingrained in our life !

slide17
What
  • What is the embedded system?
    • Embedded System
      • Processor based
        • General processors
        • Micro controllers
        • DSP
      • A subsystem
      • With special purpose
        • Not a general programming computer
major components

Sensors

Memory

Software

A/D

D/A

Input

Output

Actuators

ASIC/FPGA

Processor(s)

Keyboards,

Mouse,

Displays,

Switches, etc

Other Hardware

Clock circuit, timer, etc

Interconnections

Auxiliary Systems (power, cooling,…)

Major components
some common characteristics
Some common characteristics
  • Application specific
    • Executes a single program, repeatedly
  • Tightly-constrained
    • Low cost, low power, small, fast, etc.
  • Reactive and real-time
    • Continually reacts to changes in the system’s environment
    • Timing is as important as the correctness
why processors
Why Processors
  • Flexibility
  • Easy to upgrade
  • Easy to build complex system behavior
  • Maintainability
design challenges
Design Challenges
  • Moore’s Law
    • Productivity Gap
  • Design Cost
  • Stringent Time-to-market
  • Design requirements (constraints)
moore s law
Moore’s Law

The transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months.

--by Gordon Moore,1965 (co-founder of Intel)

power consumption challenges
Power Consumption Challenges

Source: S. Borkar, Thousand Core Chips – A Technology Perspective, DAC, 2007

slide26
Fact
  • In 1975, an IBM mainframe computer that could perform 10,000,000 instructions per second cost around $10,000,000. 33mhz Intel 80486 can perform better than 11mips. How much money you would like to pay for a computer with Intel 80486 processor today?
productivity gap
Productivity Gap

The gap between the availability of the IC technology (increasing computing power) and the application of the IC technology.

productivity gap1
Productivity Gap

Fact:

1981 leading edge chip required 100 designer months. 2002 leading edge chip requires 30,000 designer months

design challenges cont d
Design Challenges (cont’d)
  • Moore’s Law
    • Productivity Gap
  • Design cost
    • Reduce non-recurring engineering (NRE) cost
      • A superior human engineer may outperform the CAD tools in designing simple embedded systems but not for systems with hundred millions to billions gates
  • Stringent time-to-market
  • Design requirements (constraints)
design cost
Design Cost
  • Total cost = NRE cost + Unit cost * Unit #
    • NRE (Non-recurring engineering cost) cost
      • one time monetary cost for the products
    • Unit cost
      • the monetary cost of manufacturing each copy of the system, excluding NRE cost
    • Ex: 1000 Units, NRE cost $5,000,000, unit cost $1000
      • Cost/product = (5000000+1000*1000)/1000 = 6000$
design challenges cont d1
Design Challenges (cont’d)
  • Moore’s Law
    • Productivity Gap
  • Design cost
    • Reduce non-recurring engineering (NRE) cost
  • Stringent time-to-market
  • Design requirements (constraints)
time to market
Time required to develop a product to the point it can be sold to customers

Market window

Period during which the product would have highest sales

Delays can be costly

Each week delay translates to 1% loss in relative performance

Revenues ($)

Time (months)

Time-to-market
design challenges cont d2
Design Challenges (cont’d)
  • Moore’s Law
    • Productivity Gap
  • Design cost
    • Reduce non-recurring engineering (NRE) cost
  • Stringent time-to-market
  • Design requirements (constraints)
design requirements constraints
Design Requirements (Constraints)
  • Functionality
  • Timing
  • Power consumption
  • Cost
  • Size&Weight
  • Safety & Reliability
    • Low cost reliability with minimal redundancy
  • Others: component acquisition, upgrades, compatibility, etc.
the general design flow

requirements

specification

architecture

component

design

system

integration

The General Design Flow
  • In the past:
    • Hardware and software design technologies were very different
    • Recent maturation of synthesis enables a unified view of hardware and software
  • Hardware/software “codesign”
  • High abstraction level design
1970 s
1970’s

Transistor

Layout

1980 s
1980’s

Gate

Transistor

1990 s

MUX

ALU

Reg

1990’s

ALUs,MUXes, Regs

Gates

1990 s 2000s

MUX

ALU

Reg

1990’s-2000s’

MEM

A/D

D/A

FPGA

uP

ASIC

ALUs,MUXes, Regs

Proc,FPGA,ASICs

software design
Software Design
  • Instruction Set Architecture
  • Assembly Programming (Compiler, Linker)
  • VHDL, C programming
  • Embedded C, Hardware C, …
  • Graphical Language, behavioral synthesis …
abstraction
Abstraction
  • Conceptual interpretation of a system

System

Complexity

Abstraction

Level

y chart

System Level

Structural

Behavioural

RT Level

Processors,ASICs,memory

Algorithms,processes

Logical Level

ALU,Reg,MUX

RT Specifications

Boolean Eqn.

Gates,Flip-Flops

Circuit Level

Transistors

Differential Eqn.

Layout

Cells, wiring

Macro-cells,chips

Boards,SOCs

Physical

Y-chart
slide44

Behavioral

Structure

Synthesis

Optimization

Analysis

Refinement

Abstraction

Generation

Extraction

Physical

slide45

Abstraction Level

state of the art design
State-of-the-Art Design
  • Address the complex system at high abstraction levels
    • Explore all degrees of design freedom
    • Making some critical decisions at an early design phrase
    • Reducing production cost, design cost, and development time
  • Emphasize on design use
ip reuse
IP Reuse
  • IP (Intellectual Property)
    • A family of componentsthat can perform certain clusters of functions
      • Hard IP, e.g. layout, netlist
      • Soft IP, e.g. RTOS, device driver, libraries
  • Reuse
    • Not something new
    • Reduce NRE cost
    • Reduce development time
platform based design
Platform Based Design
  • A good implementation strategy for IP reuse
  • Platform
    • A platform is, in general, an abstraction that covers a number of possible refinements into a lower level. For every platform, there is a view that is used to map the upper layers of abstraction into the platform and a view that is used to define the class of lower level abstractions implied by the platform.
platforms

Application Space (Features)

Application Instances

Platform

Specification

System Platform

Platform Design Space Exploration

Architectural Space (Performance)

Platform Instance

Platforms
summary
Summary
  • Course Syllabus
  • What is embedded system and the major components
  • The challenges in embedded system design
  • The design methodology