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Stress and Health. Chapter 16. Health Psychology. Understand connection between physical & psychological health Understand role of stress Promote disease detection & prevention. Process of Stress. Stressors Stress Mediators Stress Response Life changes Predictability Physical

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Presentation Transcript
health psychology
Health Psychology

Understand connection between physical & psychological health

Understand role of stress

Promote disease detection & prevention

process of stress
Process of Stress
  • Stressors Stress Mediators Stress Response

Life changes Predictability Physical

Catastrophic Control Psychological

events Coping resources Emotional

Daily hassles & methods Cognitive

Chronic stressor Social support Behavioral

stressors
Stressors
  • Both pleasant & unpleasant events
    • Life changes
      • New circumstances
    • Catastrophic events
      • Sudden, potentially life-threatening experiences
    • Daily hassles
      • Frequent pressures/annoyances
    • Chronic stressors
      • Continue over time
process of stress1
Process of Stress
  • Stressors Stress Mediators Stress Response

Life changes Predictability Physical

Catastrophic Control Psychological

events Coping resources Emotional

Daily hassles & methods Cognitive

Chronic stressor Social support Behavioral

stress mediators
Stress Mediators
  • Individual differences in response to same stressor
  • Perception of stress
    • Predictability & control
    • Coping resources & methods
      • Problem-focused
      • Emotion-focused
    • Social support
coping
Coping
  • Problem-focused
    • Altering or eliminating stress
      • Confronting
      • Seeking support
      • Problem-solving
  • Emotion-focused
    • Dealing with emotional effects of stress
      • Distancing
      • Reappraising
      • Accepting responsibility
      • Escaping or avoiding
coping examples
Coping Examples
  • Cognitive
    • Reappraising (“I can manage this”)
  • Emotional
    • Support
  • Behavioral
    • Time management
  • Physical
    • Substance use
    • Progressive muscle relaxation
planning to cope
Planning to Cope

Identify specific stressor(s) & effects (e.g., fatigue)

Set goals – what is changeable

Planning – specific steps to take

Action – implement coping

Evaluation – changes as result of coping

Adjustment – alter coping if necessary

coping social support
Coping – Social Support
  • Social support
    • Eliminate stressor (e.g., friend helps fix car)
    • Eases impact (companionship)
    • Ideas for coping
  • Effects of support
    • Reduces emotional stress
    • Reduces illness
social support
Social Support

Causal direction: coping social support

Depends on quality of relationship

Amount & type of support

individual differences in response
Individual Differences in Response
  • Stress-related illness more common if
    • “Disease-prone” personality: angry, anxious, depressed
    • Avoid dealing with stressors
    • Catastrophize & blame self
    • Low self-efficacy
  • Stress-related illness less common if
    • “Disease-resistant” personality: sociable, optimistic
    • See stressor as temporary challenge
process of stress2
Process of Stress
  • Stressors Stress Mediators Stress Response

Life changes Predictability Physical

Catastrophic Control Psychological

events Coping resources Emotional

Daily hassles & methods Cognitive

Chronic stressor Social support Behavioral

physical response
Physical Response
  • Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
  • Sequence
    • Alarm
    • Resistance
    • Exhaustion
alarm stage
Alarm Stage

Fight or flight

Sympathetic division of autonomic NS

Adrenal & pituitary glands

alarm adrenal gland
Alarm - Adrenal Gland

Hypothalamus stimulates adrenal gland

Adrenal gland secretes adrenaline/noradrenaline, which circulate in bloodstream, activating organs

Liver, kidneys, heart, lungs

Muscle tension, blood sugar, blood pressure

alarm pituitary gland
Alarm – Pituitary Gland

HPA Axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical)

Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary

Pituitary secretes hormones (e.g., ACTH)

ACTH stimluates adrenal to secrete corticosteroids & pituitary releases endorphins (painkillers)

Corticosteroids: release energy supplies & fight inflammation

Alarm generates energy

If alarm persists, resources can be exhausted

resistance
Resistance

If stressors persist

Body continues to respond but at reduced rate

exhaustion
Exhaustion

Physical wear & tear in organs

Suppresses immune function

Can result in death

Selye called diseases caused or worsened by stress diseases of adaptation

psychological response
Psychological Response
  • Emotional
    • Fear, anger, frustration, tension
  • Behavioral
    • Affect, posture, escape stressors (quit school), aggression
  • Cognitive
    • Decreased concentration, memory, & decision-making
    • Catastrophizing
stress illness
Stress & Illness
  • Immune system
    • Stress decreases number of “natural killer” cells
  • Cardiovascular system
    • Frequent activation of alarm system is linked to
      • Coronary heart disease
      • High blood pressure
      • Strokes
healthy behavior
Healthy Behavior

Smoking cessation

Moderate or no alcohol use

Abstinence or safe sex

health beliefs
Health Beliefs

Perceive a personal threat

Perceive seriousness of threat

Perceive specific behavior change will reduce threat

Comparison of costs & benefits of behavior change