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Decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Sick Man of Europe Chapter 26. Essential Questions. How did the military defeats of the 1700s signal the decay of the Ottoman Empire? What were some of the reasons for internal decay? How did Sultan’s attempt to reform?

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decline of the ottoman empire

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

The Sick Man of Europe

Chapter 26

essential questions
Essential Questions
  • How did the military defeats of the 1700s signal the decay of the Ottoman Empire?
  • What were some of the reasons for internal decay?
  • How did Sultan’s attempt to reform?
  • How did revolts and rebellions lead to further disintegration
  • What was the significance of the Eastern question?
  • What was the Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878?
  • How did World War I lead to the empire’s fall?
military defeats of the 1700s
Military Defeats of the 1700s
  • 1683: defeat after the siege of Vienna shows Ottoman weakness
  • Christian forces carve away at Ottoman lands
  • Treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) strip Ottoman of Hungary and Transylvania
  • Lose land in 1710s to Peter the Great
  • Lose Crimea (Balkan Peninsula) to Catherine the Great in late 1700s
signs of internal decay
Signs of Internal Decay
  • Poor rulers and weak corrupt government
  • Sultans want to modernize face opposition from influential old groups and clerics
  • Janissary army becomes outdated and refuse to change
  • Sultan Selim III assassinated by Janissaries in 1807 after attempting to modernize army and navy
General lack of interest in industrialization
  • Minority groups such as Christians and Jews carry out trade with the west
  • Competition with West  decline of local artisans
attempts at reform
Attempts at Reform
  • Sultans modernize and secularize government bureaucracy
  • Boost western ideas, science and technology
  • Sometimes meet resistance from the clergy
mahmud ii 1808 1839
Mahmud II (1808-1839)
  • Built a small professional army
  • Tricks Janissaries into revolting
  • Crushes rebellion and disbands Janissary corps
  • Gets control over Ayan
  • Begins policy of westernization
mehmed iii
Mehmed III
  • 1820s: assists Mahumd II
  • Creates professional army
  • Subdues Janissaries
  • Builds modern navy
tanzimat reforms 1839 1876
Tanzimat Reforms 1839-1876
  • 1839-1876
  • Westernization of education
  • Introduces western communication systems
  • Western style laws and constitution
  • Some increased rights for women, some women enter public life
revolts and rebellions
Revolts and Rebellions
  • Further weaken and cut away at the Ottoman Empire
revolts and rebellions12
Revolts and Rebellions
  • 1820 Greek Revolution: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire
  • 1867 Serbs gain independence
  • Dynasty begins to feel increasingly threatened by westernized bureaucrats, professionals and military officers
abdul hamid 1878 1908 last sultan
Abdul Hamid (1878-1908) last sultan
  • Attempts return to despotic absolutism, nullifies constitution and decreases civil rights
  • Continues to adopt western tech and military
  • Forced out with bloodless coup
the eastern question
The Eastern Question
  • How should Western European rulers deal with the Ottoman Empire?
  • No longer a threat
  • Held together volatile parts of Asia and Europe
  • Held important place geographically between Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean
Worry that collapse will destroy Europe’s delicate Balance of Power
  • Western nations especially nervous about increasing Austrian and Russian power
  • Britain and France support Turks against Russia and Austria even as they take over parts of the empire
eastern question in cartoons
Eastern Question in Cartoons

Attendant. "How do you feel after your bath, my Lord?"LORD B. "Pretty comfortable, thank you!—(Aside. Lost some weight, I fancy.) —You made it so confoundedly HOT  for me!!!"

< The Turkish bath / John Tenniel.  In: Punch (7 Oct 1876)

Gladstone tried to influence Government policy on the Eastern Question by appealing directly to the public, both on the platform and through the press, on behalf of  the Bulgarian victims of Turkish persecution.   

eastern question in cartoons17
Eastern Question in Cartoons
  • The Status Quo

Turkey: Will you still

Befriend me?

Britannia: Befriend You?-

Not with your hands

That colour!

the crimean war
The Crimean War
  • 1854-1856
  • Britain and France support Ottmans in war against Russian expansion into Black sea
  • Costly war with over 250,000 casualties
  • Defeat Russia’s forces but shows weakness of Ottoman Empire
british attitude of the crimean war
British Attitude of the Crimean War
  • How Jack Made the Turk Usefula at Balaclaya (1856, John Leech in Punch)
as is that weren t bad enough
As is that weren’t bad enough…
  • Construction of Suez Canal in 1869 increases geographic importance of Egypt
  • Unification of Italy in 1860s adds another power into the Mediterranean
  • Montenegro, Romania, and Bulgaria struggle for greater autonomy
balkan crisis of 1876 1878
Balkan Crisis of 1876-1878
  • Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia rise up
  • Turks suppress rebellion ruthlessly
  • Russia attacks in 1877, and defeats in 1878
  • Congress of Berlin of 1878 presided over by Bismarck gives Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia independence
the rise of the young turks
The Rise of the Young Turks
  • Ottoman Society for Union and Progress a.k.a. Young Turks formed in Paris 1889
    • Goal: restore the constitution of 1876
    • Successful in 1908
problems 1908 1914
Problems 1908-1914
  • Division between military leaders  fighting
  • Young Turks struggle to keep empire together
  • Increasing Arab nationalism  more loss of land
balkan wars world war i
Balkan Wars & World War I
  • 1911-1912Italy attacks Ottoman and takes control of remaining land in North Africa
  • First Balkan War of 1912: Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria defeat Ottoman forces
  • During WWI join the Central powers and are defeated in 1918
  • Empire collapses, remaining middle eastern possessions rebel and are taken over by Britain and France
  • Modern State of Turkey formed in 1920s
change over time
Change Over Time
  • Discuss in detail the internal and external forces that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire between 1689 and 1918
    • Be sure to include (see rubric!)
      • A strong thesis statement
      • Historical evidence of change
      • Analysis of both internal and external causes of decline