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In-Class Exercise: Question 1 • 1. States and revolution • Define revolution • What factors led to the breakdown of the old (imperial) regime? • How does regime breakdown relate to revolution?
States and Social Revolutions • ThedaSkocpol: explaining social revolutions Last class: • Breakdown of old state apparatus key part of revolutionary situation • Domestically—domestic rebellion • Internationally—defeat in international war Today: • Creation of new political order key part of successful revolution • Ideology • Organization • Mass support
The Struggle between the KMT and the CCP Competing to create the new political order
Themes Ideological possibilities Liberalism Marxism-Leninism Confucianism Nationalism Organization Leninist party organizations “Modern” politics and mass support
In-Class Exercise: Question 2 2. Nationalism • According to Wu Guoguang, what are the key characteristics of • May Fourth nationalism? • Late 20th C nationalism?
Chinese nationalism • Following upon a “century of humiliation” • How to make China • Wealthy • Strong • Free from foreign domination?
Fate of liberalism What would be the role of the Chinese people in their own governance? Failed experiment in democracy
“Modern” politics Mass political participation Political parties Ironically, “modern” politics coincided with the Warlord years (1916-1928) Roots in response to Taiping Rebellion
“Modern Politics”: 1st elementMass participation • Mass participation • Urbanization • especially Shanghai • Literacy • use of vernacular (白话 baihua) • Media • newspapers, magazines • Fostered national awareness, identity New Youth
Historical background on “modern era” May 4, 1919 May 4th Movement Student protests Merchant boycotts Labor strikes (Reading ques: Saich, #1) May 30, 1925 General strike in Shanghai
“Modern Politics”: 2nd elementPolitical Parties Development of KMT and CCP Ideology Distinct ideologies Organization BothLeninist parties democratic centralism
Nationalist Party (founded 1912) KMT kuo-min-tang 国民党 guomindang Sun Yat-sen Ideology: Three People’s Principles Nationalism Democracy People’s livelihood (Reading Question: Blecher #3)
Nationalist Party Organization Leninist party democratic centralism
In-Class Exercise: Question 3 3. KMT vs. CCP attempts to consolidate power after the revolutionary opening • How effective were KMT attempts to consolidate power?
Chinese Communist Party (founded 1921) CCP 共产党 gongchandang Marxism-Leninism Radical, egalitarian Emphasis on Social transformation National self-determination CCP founder Chen Duxiu
Phases of Chinese Communist Movement in Countryside Peasant movement (1920s) “Soviet” base areas (1927 ff) Radical land reform Confiscate land from landlords redistribute War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45) Moderate land reform Reduce land rents Shift tax burden to landlords away from peasants Mutual aid—share tools, draft animals Civil War (1945-49)
How did the CCP win the civil war on the mainland? Yan’an Era CCP arrived in Yan’an following the Long March (1934-35) Reading question: Blecher #4
In-Class Exercise: Questions 4-6 4. What types of peasants are most likely to adopt Predatory strategies? Protective strategies? 5. “Report on Peasant Movement”: Discuss Mao’s analysis of poor, middle, and rich peasants. Can you relate it to Perry’s analysis of predatory and protective strategies? 6. How did the CCP relate to different types of peasants?
How did the CCP mobilize the peasantry? Tapped tradition of peasant rebellion CCP peasant organizing initial rural policies of CCP—very extreme; appeal to poorest But peasant China very diverse as Perry shows Organizationally diverse Ecologically diverse CCP adapted rural policies (CCP had to do similar analytical exercise that Perry did in her book Rebels and Revolutionaries) Implemented more moderate policies to elicit support from less destitute peasants Redirected rebellion toward revolutionary goals through ideology and organization
Phases of Chinese Communist Movement in Countryside Peasant movement (1920s) “Soviet” base areas (1927 ff) War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45) Civil War (1945-49)
How did the CCP win the civil war on the mainland? Substantive policies informed by ideology social transformation and rural reform resistance to Japanese occupation
How did the CCP win the civil war on the mainland? Organizational techniques Developed propaganda apparatus grassroots mobilizing Developed repressive measures 1942 “Rectification Campaign”
How did the CCP win the civil war on the mainland? Organizational techniques Developed propaganda apparatus grassroots mobilizing Developed repressive measures 1942 “Rectification Campaign” Darker side of Yan’an Criticism of party restricted Thought reform Struggle sessions Criticism Self criticism
Review Revolutionary change has long-term causes Internal decline Dynastic cycle Tradition of peasant rebellion External challenge posed by Western powers and Japan The two sides in the revolutionary civil war were products of a new modern politics characterized by Mass political participation Political parties: KMT vs. CCP Shared Leninist organizational models Distinct ideologies
Review Consolidation of revolutionary opening through Ideology Organization Mass support
Review How did the CCP win the civil war on the mainland? Ideology informed substantive policies Social transformation and rural reform Moderated policies to increase popular support Resistance to Japanese occupation Organization: effective organizational techniques Developed propaganda apparatus grassroots mobilizing Developed repressive measures 1942 “Rectification Campaign”