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The Cardiovascular system 1.2.2

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The Cardiovascular system 1.2.2. Semilunar valves. Aorta. Left atrium. Vena cavae. Pulmonary artery. Right atrium. Pulmonary veins. Tricuspid valve. Bicuspid valve. Right ventricle. Left ventricle. Septum . Cardiac muscle. To the lungs. To the body. From the body. From the lungs.

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the cardiovascular system 1 2 2
The Cardiovascular system 1.2.2

Semilunar valves


Left atrium

Vena cavae

Pulmonary artery

Right atrium

Pulmonary veins

Tricuspid valve

Bicuspid valve

Right ventricle

Left ventricle


Cardiac muscle

Tothe lungs

To the body

From the body

From the lungs

The left side

pumps oxygenated

blood to the rest of

the body for use.

The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

the circulatory system
Blood flows around the body in a ‘figure of eight’ circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.

There are 2 separate ‘loops’ to the circuit:

The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back.

The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back.

The Circulatory system








the circulatory system 1 2 2
The Circulatory system 1.2.2

Heart rate is:

“The number of times the heart beats each minute”

  • During exercise your HR will increase
  • With continued training your resting HR will be lower as your heart is stronger and more efficient
  • Stroke volume is:

“the volume of blood pumped out of the heart during one contraction”

  • At rest stroke volume may be 85ml, but when exercising it will increase up to 130ml
the circulatory system1
The Circulatory system
  • Cardiac output is:

“the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute”

  • Cardiac output is governed by the HR and stroke volume
  • Cardiac output = stroke volume x HR
  • When you train your cardiac output will increase because your heart is be bigger, stronger and more efficient
the circulatory system2
The Circulatory system
  • There are three main types of blood vessels
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries
the respiratory system 1 2 3
The Respiratory System 1.2.3
  • Alveoli
  • Are tiny structures were diffusion of o2 and co2 takes place
  • Surrounded by capillaries
  • Capillaries have thin walls as well to allow exchange of o2 and co2
  • The more training you do the more alveoli become available for gaseous exchange

Thin wall

Red blood cells


the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • Tidal volume

“The volume of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise ”

  • Tidal volume increases during exercise
  • Vital capacity

“the maximum amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by the most forceful inspiration and expiration”

the respiratory system1
The Respiratory System
  • Oxygen debt

“the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest”

muscles and muscle action 1 2 4
Muscles and muscle action 1.2.4




muscles and muscle action
Muscles and muscle action

Hold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways.


In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up.

Latissimus dorsi

Pull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back.

At the back of the body, either side of the chest.


At the top of each arm at the back.

Straighten the arms at the elbow.

muscles and muscle action1
Muscles and muscle action


In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders.

Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders.


At the top of each arm at the front.

Bend the arms at the elbows.

At the top of each leg at the front.


Straighten the legs at the knees.

muscles and muscle action2
Muscles and muscle action

Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders.

In the upper part of the chest at the front.


At the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest.

Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward.


muscles and muscle action3
Muscles and muscle action
  • Antagonistic muscles
  • Skeletal muscles work across a joint and are attached to the bones by strong cords known as tendons.
  • They work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement.
muscles and muscle action4
Muscles and muscle action
  • Flexion (bending) of the arm
  • The muscle doing the work (contracting) and creating the movement is called the agonist or primemover.
  • The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement take place is called the antagonist.


(Triceps relax)

Agonist or Prime Mover

(Biceps contract)

muscle vocab
Muscle vocab
  • hypertrophy and atrophy
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Lactic Acid .... Poison
  • Isotonic – muscle contraction resulting in limb movement
  • Isometric – muscle contraction resulting in increased tension
  • Strain muscles .... Sprained joints
  • RICE
bones 1 2 5
Bones 1.2.5
  • Functions of skeleton
  • Support – Allows us to hold positions, standing up.
  • Movement – Allows activity.
  • Protection – Protects the vital organs, eg, brain, hearts, lung etc..
Bone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10).

Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers.

Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport.

A joint – a place where 2 or more bones meet.

joints tendons and ligaments
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • A joint is:

“a place were two bones meet”

  • Joints allow use to move freely during everyday life and in sporting activities
  • Without them our movement would be restricted
  • E.g. joints in our fingers allow us to grip (a racket, ball etc)
joints tendons and ligaments1
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • You need to now the different types of joint
  • Ball and socket (shoulder)
  • Synovial hinge joint (knee)
joints tendons and ligaments2
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • Joint movements
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Adduction
  • Abduction
  • Rotation