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Emotion. Health Group 2 by: Emmanuel Villanueva Bria Monroe Victorica Rosby Monica L Hernandez. Topic Map. Brain -> Emotion. The Emotional Brain. Emotions Revealed. General Topic Map. Woman. The Emotional Brain. Joseph LeDoux.

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Health Group 2


Emmanuel Villanueva

Bria Monroe

Victorica Rosby

Monica L Hernandez

general topic map

The Emotional Brain

Emotions Revealed

General Topic Map


The Emotional Brain

joseph ledoux
Joseph LeDoux
  • Author biography: Joseph LeDoux Henry and Lucy Moses professor of Science at NYU for Central for Neural Science
  • Directs Emotional Brain Institute of NYU
  • Studies brain mechanisms of memory and emotion
  • Author of: The Emotional Brain & Synaptic Self
  • Lead singer and songwriter in rock band Amygdaloid
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMI3hbgRj6o
  • Awards: Karl Spencer Lashley Award from American Philosophical Society
  • The Fyssen International Prize in Cognitive Science
  • Jean Louis Signoret Prize of the IPSEN Foundation
  • Santiago Grisolia Prize
  • American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award

Any or all of the sciences which deal with the structure or function of the nervous system

joseph ledoux summary
Joseph LeDoux Summary

Joseph Le Doux encourages the application of the comparative approach, because results in animal studies are similar to those in humans.

Le Doux explains that invasive experimental research on humans is not possible because of ethical reasons, and offers animal models as an alternative form of invasive research.

He explains the concept of unity in diversity. For example, how different species, including humans, are diverse, yet similar to animals in ways, such as in the function of the amygdala.

The reading portrayed techniques used to find pathways used in emotions (e.g brain stimulation and lesioning studies)

Through Dr. Le Doux’s exploration of fear conditioning he conveyed complexity in the brain.

Le Doux demonstrated the amygdala and its central nucleus are involved in fear conditioning.

more info and connections
More info and Connections

Journal of Neuroscience

Affective Neuroscience

-Richard J. Davidson

YouTube Channel

Society for Neuroscience

UC San Diego

University of Michigan

Paul EkmanFrom Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life

-Paul Ekman was born February 15, 1934 his mother and father were both Jewish.

-Father pediatrician and mother an attorney

Ekman originally wanted to be a psychotherapist

-He attended the University of Chicago at the very young age of 15, without graduating from high school. His interest were focusing on group therapy

-New York University earned his Ba in 1954

-Ekman was accepted to Adelphi University graduate school for clinical psychology

-His Master thesis focused on facial expression and body movement


-Paul Ekman later became an American psychologist

-Research in New Guinea

Expert in the study of emotions

“I tested this formulation in a series of studies that showed that when alone Japanese and American displayed the same facial expressions in response to seeing films of surgery and accidents, but when a scientist sat with them as they watched the films, the Japanese more than Americans masked negative expressions with a smile” (P. 246).

Observer effect

Question 1: “Get that smirk of your Face?” What do you interpret by that saying? Explain (If needed refer to P. 246 paragraph 3) -health

Question 2: Do you believe facial expressions are universal and why? Explain (If needed refer to P. 245) abnormal

Question 3: Explain to the class the difference between innate expressions and managed expression. (If needed refer to Pg 246 paragraph 4) developmental

chapter summary
  • Two similar ideas of Charles Darwin and Silvan Tomkins were conveyed in the reading.
  • The main idea is that emotions are expressed via universal facial expressions.
  • Paul Ekman began study in the reading believing expressions were socially learned through culture
  • In Ekman’s study he showed photographs to people in five different cultures.
  • The study asked the five cultures to judge what emotion was shown in the facial expressions.
  • In the reading everyone agreed that the expression were universal.
  • But was that the case?
  • Birdwhistell is another scientist found how expressions differ from one culture to another through display rules.
  • Display rules: are socially learned, but other cultural differ but it is said that “they are embodied in the parent’s admonition”.
  • Ekman needed to branch out to an isolated Stone Age culture to validate his hypothesis.
  • Carleton Gajdusek was the gateway for Ekman to fail to reject his hypothesis.
  • 1st experiment was in New Guinea: asked them to make up a story about each facial expression (it was awkward)
  • Ekman returned home and worked on simplifying the experiment
  • Instead of the New Guinea making up the story, Paul told them stories
  • 2nd experiment: Ekman told those of New Guinea a story and displayed images and asked them to match the images to the story. They were able to distinguish between: anger, happiness, disgust, and sadness.
  • The hypothesis of facial expressions being universal was supported.
natalie angier
Natalie Angier

Born in New York on Feb. 16, 1958 and grew up in the Bronx and New Buffalo, Mich

After completing two years at the University of Michigan, she studied physics and English at Barnard College where she graduated in 1978.

From 1980 to 1984, Angier wrote about biology for Discover Magazine. She also worked as a scientist writer for Time Magazine, and was briefly a adjunct professor in New York University’s Graduate Program in Science, Health and Environmental Reporting.

In 1990, she joined The New York Times as a science writer.

Angier is an outspoken atheist.

books awards
Books & Awards

Natural Obsession (1988)

The Beauty of the Beastly (1995)

Woman: An Intimate Geography (1999)

The Canon: A Whirligig Tour of the Beautiful Basics of Science (2007)

Pulitzer Prize for Beat Reporting (1991)

Natural Obsession named NYT Notable Book of the Year & AAAS Notable Book of the Year (1988)

AAAS award for excellence in journalism

Lewis Thomas Award for distinguished writing in the field of science.

General Motors International award for writing about cancer.

Six-year appointment (2006-2012) as an A.D. White Professor-at-large at Cornell University.

book information
Book Information
  • This article was actually withdrawn from Angier’s book that is titled, “Woman: An Intimate Geography” published in 1998.
  • Her book is a general reflection about the human body. This includes the female body, anatomy, behavior, to evolution and psychology.
  • The book was praised for providing an interdisciplinary approach through illustrating science with personal stories, art, and literature.
chapter summary1
Chapter Summary
  • Main idea: That hormones and emotions play a key role in the sexual behavior of females.
  • Estrus: the hormonal cycle for animals except for humans and some apes/chimps which menstruate.
  • Female rodents like the rat and guinea pig cannot partake in any sexual activity without being in heat.
    • hormones play a key role in their vaginas ability to dilate for intercourse
chapter summary2
Chapter Summary

Estrus: the hormonal cycle for animals except for humans and some apes/chimps which menstruate

  • 3 main characteristics of Estrus

1st: No menstruation, although “spotting” (light bleeding) can occur

2nd: Ovulation occurs while the animal is on “heat,” or estrus.

3rd: Female animals engage in sexual behavior only when they are in heat, that it, during the estrus phase of the cycle. (box A)

chapter summary3
Chapter Summary
  • Female primates are capable of engaging in sexual intercourse at any point in time
  • Unlike the female rodent, the female primate can engage in any sexual activity without being held back by hormonal influences
    • psychological mechanisms influence sexual motivation
    • sexual behavior is under the female’s control
    • sexual activities can be used in different contexts for different reasons, ex: economic, political, boredom, emotion
chapter summary4
Chapter Summary
  • Executive function- the dimension of the self that exercises volition, choice, and self-control.
    • Every function is a mental process that helps connect experiences with present action. It has a correlation with working memory.
    • executive function is shaped by both physical changes in brain and by life experiences.
    • “Self-control must be counted among our species’ great strengths [which is] the source of our adaptability and suppleness” (p.257).
      • very little is automatic
      • example of executive function: Experts/ professionals in a field of mastery “form similar exchanges between intentional and programmatic behaviors” (p.257)
    • Human capacity for self control is limited (human nature, emotions, hormones, etc.)
    • Human female anatomy
      • adolescence -puberty- hormonal changes- arousal, desire, sex
      • “The shifting of the chemical setting stirs desire” (p.257)
chapter summary5
Chapter Summary

Emotion & Arousal

  • No one has proposed a formal model of emotion in sexual arousal.

Hormones & Sex

  • Sex hormones are an important physiological force that interacts with the nervous system to influence sexual response.
hormones sex
Hormones & Sex
  • Ovaries produce two hormones
    • Estrogen and Progesterone.
    • Estrogen: The group of female sex hormone. Is responsible for the changes in puberty. (stimulating the growth of the uterus and vagina, enlarging the pelvis, and stimulating breast growth)
  • Levels of estrogen and progesterone fluctuate according to the phase of the menstrual cycle and during various other stages such as pregnancy and menopause
  • The pituitary gland produces two other hormones
    • prolactin and oxytocin
    • Prolactin stimulates production of milk.
    • Oxytocin stimulates ejection of the milk from the nipples, stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth, and has gained a popular reputation as the “snuggle chemical”, because it tends to promote affectionate bonding, ex. new born baby
menarche first menstruation
Menarche -First Menstruation
  • Menarche (1st menstruation) usually occurs at age 12, but can occur as early at age 8
    • Although early menstruation often does not mean a girl is producing viable eggs
  • Menarche is brought on, in part, by leptin
    • Hormone is stored primarily in body fat
    • Menarche often comes later for underweight girls and can come earlier for overweight girls
    • Women can stop having their period if they become dangerously under-weight (e.g., anorexic)
4 phases of menstruation
4 Phases of Menstruation
  • Follicular Phase – one (sometimes more) follicle releases an egg, which then matures
  • Ovulation – the egg is mature and located in one of the fallopian tubes
  • ž Luteal Phase – increases in estrogen and progesterone cause development of the endometrium (ureteral lining)
  • Menstruation: Shredding of the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium), which then passes out through the cervix and then the vagina.
female anatomy and sexuality
Female Anatomy and Sexuality
  • Fallopian Tubes-
    • connects uterus to ovaries
    • lined with small hairs (cilia) that carries the eggs
    • Majority of eggs are fertilized in these tubes
    • Tubes aren't directly attached to the ovaries
      • Eggs must pass through body cavity to reach it
    • Eptopic pregnancy- egg is fertilized outside of the tubes
female anatomy and sexuality1
Female Anatomy And Sexuality
  • Ovaries
    • size and shaped like almonds
    • Houses eggs and produces hormones, especially estrogen and progesterone
      • at birth they house about 1 million immature eggs
    • one or more eggs mature during each menstrual cycle
      • Typically, only one ovary operates during each cycle.
so what does this all mean
So what does this all mean?
  • Certain animals have a limited time period to breed (1 or 2 sessions)
  • In contrast, “humans are long-lived creatures who operate on the implicit assumption that they will have many opportunities to breed and can afford [to not breed every opportunity that is presented]”
  • Emotions “work synergistically on neural circuits that subserve motive and behavior, integrating psyche with the body”
    • they encourage or inhibit behaviors
  • refer to page 260 & 258

Skits: choose a universal emotion, and within your group create a skit that expresses the complexity of that emotion.



Any questions?