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East Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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East Africa
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  1. East Africa

  2. Landforms • Great Rift Valley • Rift Valley: Places on Earth’s surface where the crust stretches until it breaks • Mountains, plateaus, volcanoes lay along these rifts • Kilimanjaro: most famous of the rift’s volcanoes • Highest mountain in Africa • Lake Victoria: World’s second largest lake • Source of the Nile: Ethiopia (Blue) and Lake Victoria (White)

  3. Great Rift Valley

  4. Mt. Kilimanjaro

  5. Lake Victoria

  6. Climates • Close to the equator • Periods of wet and dry • Kenya and Uganda – spring-like climates • Farther from the equator – more droughts • Northern Sudan = Sahara • Weather is unpredictable

  7. Effects of Droughts/Rain • Droughts • Grass dies  cattle die • Cattle die  people who depend on livestock begin to starve  people move to areas with vegetation • Result: Overgrazing and desertification • Too much rain • Locust populations increase • Grasshoppers eat trees/plants • Result: Animals and people starve

  8. Serengeti Plain • Plains area in Eastern Africa that has an abundance of wildlife • Tsetse Fly: kills livestock because it carries sleeping sickness (also can infect humans) • Result: Few humans or livestock and an abundance of native animals • Annual migration

  9. Natural Resources • Not rich in energy or mineral resources • Sudan began producing oil recently • Soil is not very productive • Scenery = best natural resource • Wildlife viewing, tours, etc

  10. History • Earliest human remains found in East Africa • Greatest Kingdom in ancient times was the Kush • Built pyramids • Modern day Sudan • Conquered by the Askum (who adopted Christianity) • Arab Traders • Established ports along the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa about 1,500 years ago to trade gold/ivory from interior • Europeans • Drew boundaries without thought to ethnic groups or enemy groups • Ethiopia remained free • Grew cash groups (coffee, cotton, tea) • Established cities • Independence: During the 50s and 60s (Djibouti 1977; Eretria broke off from Ethiopia in 1993)

  11. Culture • Several hundred ethnic groups • Divided by language – 3 main groups • Arab traditions are seen along the coast • Religious diversity: Islam (Arab traders), Christianity, Traditional beliefs • Traditional African beliefs systems • Honor ancestors • Spirits of ancestors are strong forces in daily life • Word contains spirits (in animals, mountains, trees, etc.)

  12. Injera

  13. Economic Activity • Farming and herding are the backbone of the economies in Eastern Africa • All countries have developing economies • Raw materials are the biggest export • Most economies are market • Ethiopia attempted a command economy, but it failed • Import many manufactured goods • Kenya has the highest GDP in the region • Tourism has potential, but violence has hurt the industry

  14. Challenges • Population growth • Poverty • Not enough food • Lack of health services • Lack of education opportunities • Ethnic conflict • Struggles over land and fair distribution of government aid and jobs

  15. Rwanda • Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people • 1994 • Majority Hutu tried to wipe out the minority Tutsi

  16. Somalia • Problems in Somalia are not a result of ethnic conflict • Country often has no central government of any kind • Since 1991 • Tried to take over land in Ethiopia

  17. Ghosts of Rwanda: Hutus v. Tutsis • Two very similar ethnic groups • Speak the same language • Live in same area • Follow same traditions • Hutus: Ethnic majority in Rwanda • Tutsis: Ethnic minority in Rwanda • Taller and Thinner • Origins might be in Ethiopia

  18. Ghosts of Rwanda • Belgian Rule • Said the Tutsis were superior • All people had to wear ethnic identify cards • Revolution in 1959 • Resentment by Hutus against Tutsi rule • 20,000 Tutsis were killed • Many fled to neighboring countries (Uganda) • Independence in 1962 • Hutus took control of government • Tutsis were portrayed as cause of all problems

  19. Ghosts of Rwanda Vocab • UN = United Nations • Peace keeping group formed after WWII • International Red Cross • Humanitarian Institute (centered in Switzerland) • Protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts • International Declaration of Human Rights • Adopted by UN in 1948 • Goal was to protect human rights (rights to which all humans are inherently entitled) • Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) • Tutsi refugees in Uganda • Goal was to overthrow Habyarimana (president of Rwanda in 1994) and return to their homeland