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East Africa. Askum -civilization in present day Ethiopia-major trading location. See page 431. City of Kilwa - present day Tanzania-cultural crossroad. Colonization

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east africa
East Africa
  • Askum-civilization in present day Ethiopia-major trading location. See page 431.
  • City of Kilwa- present day Tanzania-cultural crossroad.


European countries wanted the resources, so at the Berlin Conference, they divided Africa. Liberia and Ethiopia remained free of European control. Borders were set without regard to the Africans living there.


By 1970s, most of East Africa had its independence from Europe. Ethnic cleansing occurred in many countries.

  • 60% rural-farming- cash crops such as coffee, tea and sugar are grown for export, bringing in revenue but reducing land use for food in that region.
  • Tourism- wildlife parks- game reserves- farmers want to use the land. Serengeti
  • Massai- see page 434. Herders and farmers.
  • Kikuyu-Mount Kenya-traditional herders-Mau-Mau.
  • AIDS-10-20% population decrease in Africa’s worst hit countries. More to come.
north africa
North Africa
  • Egypt-the Nile-Hieroglyphics-pyramids-mummies-pharaohs.
  • Mediterranean sea off the north coast of Africa.

Invaders- Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians, Ottoman Turks, Muslims.

  • Islam major cultural and religious influence in North Africa.
  • Black Gold- oil-need for foreign skilled workers.

Souks or market places.

  • Rai-originally carefree

of poor Algerian children,

Then protest songs, now

against radical Muslims.

Role of women- once married stay home, men and women eat and pray separately. In Tunisia, a man can now have only one wife, both can seek divorce. 20% of Tunisia’s parliamentary seats are held by women.

west africa
West Africa
  • Empires of Ghana, Mali and Songhai were major trading empires. Gold and salt.
  • Many trade routes crossed the area farmed by the Sonike. War chief was ghana, so area became Ghana.
  • Mali conquered Ghana- 2/3 of gold at one time came from West Africa.
  • Songhai replaced Mali but the Moroccans destroyed them. See page 442.

Stateless society-rely on family lineage to govern. Igbo from Nigeria-problems came with European colonization(one ruler)

  • See page 443.
  • Ghana-strong economy- exports: gold, diamonds, magnesium and bauxite. Oil production is increasing and upgrade to agriculture.
  • Sierra Leone-worst economy of West Africa-civil wars and political instability- 35% literacy- shortage of skilled workers-poor road and transportation system


  • Benin “bronzes”
  • Music-mix of traditional African music with jazz, reggae and blues.
  • Kora-