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Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Culture 文化.

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culture
Culture文化
  • Cultural practices in the Americas seem to have been shared mostly within geographical zones where unrelated peoples adopted similar technologies and social organizations. An example of such a cultural area is Mesoamerica, where millennia of coexistence and shared development among the peoples of the region produced a fairly homogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns. Another well-known example is the North American plains where until the 19th century several peoples shared the traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers based primarily on buffalo hunting.
  • 採在美洲文化習俗似乎已經共享大多在哪裡無關的人民採取了類

似的技術和社會組織的地理區域。這樣的一個例子文化區是中美

洲地區,那裡的地區各國人民之間的共存和共同發展的幾千年產

生了相當同質文化與複雜的農業和社會形態。另一個著名的例子

是北美平原,直到19世紀的幾個民族共同的特質游牧主要基於水

牛狩獵狩獵集。

agriculture
Agriculture農業
  • Many crops first domesticated by indigenous Americans are now produced and/or used globally. Chief among these is maize or "corn", arguably the most important crop in the world.Othersignificant crops include cassava, chia, squash (pumpkins, zucchini, marrow, acorn squash, butternut squash), the pinto bean, Phaseolus beans including mostcommon beans, tepary beans and lima beans, tomatoes, potatoes, avocados, peanuts, cocoa beans (used to make chocolate), vanilla,strawberries, pineapples, Peppers (species and varieties of Capsicum, including bell peppers, jalapeños, paprika and chili peppers)sunflower seeds, rubber, brazilwood, chicle, tobacco, coca, manioc and some species of cotton
  • 許多作物首先由土著美國人馴化現在生產和/或全球範圍內使用。其中最主要的是玉米或“玉米”,可以說是世界上最重要的農作物。其他顯著作物包括木薯,嘉,南瓜(南瓜,西葫蘆,骨髓,橡子,南瓜,南瓜),在斑豆,菜豆豆類包括最常見的豆類,tepary豆和利馬豆,番茄,馬鈴薯,鱷梨,花生,可可豆(用於製造巧克力),香草,草莓,菠蘿,辣椒(物種和品種的辣椒,包括甜椒,jalapeños,辣椒粉和辣椒),向日葵籽,橡膠,蘇木,糖膠樹膠,煙草,可可,木薯和一些種類的棉花。
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While some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers — and many, especially in Amazonia, still are — many groups practiced aquacultureandagriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.[33]While some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires.

而美洲的一些土著人民的傳統狩獵-採集者-許多,尤其是在亞馬遜,現在仍然是-許多團體實行養殖業和農業。他們的農業禀賦對世界的影響是證明了他們的時間和工作,重塑和培育植物,原產於美洲。[ 33 ]雖然有些社會嚴重依賴農業,別人練農耕,狩獵和採集的混合。在一些地區的土著人民建立紀念性建築,大型城市舉辦,酋邦,州,和帝國。

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