THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF CHILE. A study of human rights for three indigenous groups in Chile. Indigenous Groups of Chile. Atacameno Loa province - oases valleys and brooks Agriculture and grazing Aymara Andean Foothills of the Tarapaca Region Agriculture and cattle Mapuche
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A study of human rights for three indigenous groups in Chile
The ILO Convention recognizes the following:
Held off original Spanish Conquest and was declared separate sovereignty.
In 1810 Spanish were defeated by Chile and Argentina causing new governments to arise
Mapuche fell victim to territorial conquest, aggravation caused by military, and constant persecution.
Mapuche now follow democratically elected governments.Origin
‘Machi’ have extensive knowledge of herbal medicine, sacred stones and sacred animals
Today many follow the Roman Catholic religion
They believe in their own god and they have their own since of sin and damnation
The gods they believe in are described as ‘invisible old people who have limited powersReligion
Human Rights and Realities
Access to resources and land
Education and Language
Limits cultural practices and tradition-medicine
The Aymara are an indigenous group that depend on the land and local water sources to sustain their economic, spiritual and social life.
Since the beginning, the Aymara people have lived from the herding of lamas and sheep, the agriculture on valleys and high mountains and fishing on the Lake Titicaca.
Agriculture and animal husbandry have historically sustained the local economy and are still the main activities today.
The Aymara have a complementary economy based on the principle of the “ayni” which is very important in their culture. The “ayni” is the practice of reciprocity or product barter between Aymara groups.
For the Aymara, access to their territory is relevant because it provides ecosystem services, especially related to the water cycle, in the dry environments surrounding the hyper arid Atacama Desert.
The World Health Organization estimates that 1.7 billion people lack access to clean water, and the UN Human Rights Commission has been considering a declaration of water as a basic human right.
The Chilean Government has used several economic instruments over the years to promote in- and off-farm irrigation infrastructure. Indigenous communities, however, show limited access to these subsidies.
Mining in the region
Natives speak Aymara as well as Spanish
Aymara belongs to the “Jaqi” linguistic family: major indigenous language of southern Peru and northern Chile.
Parents teach Aymara to their children as a way of respecting and preserving their culture.
Aymara has 3 million speakers (between Peru, Bolivia, and Chile), but are often excluded from state political participation
There is much indigenous support for language renewal in Chile, mostly to overcome social prejudice.
Lack of linguistic and cultural understanding has caused an imbalance between the indigenous people and outside developers.
The strong value placed on rural work in the Aymara community makes indigenous minors vulnerable to labor and economic exploitation and to dropping out of school.
1996: Chilean government created Bilingual Intercultural Education Program: Promotes diverse linguistic and cultural learning in schools. Has yet to fully succeed.
Recent government project: Incorporation of Indigenous Language Model into the subject of Language and Communication, alongside Spanish and English. Hopefully this project will succeed by the end of 2010.
The religion practiced by the Aymara is a combination of Roman Catholicism and traditional Andean beliefs.
Spirituality for the Aymara is not manifested exclusively in the sacred or religious, but expressed in the ordinary, everyday life.
The Aymara conceive of the Supreme Being as the creator of all things, everything was made by God -- what we can see and feel and what we cannot see and cannot feel (the unknown).
Contemporary religious beliefs have are rooted in Inca tradition (the Aymara were conquered by the Inca in the mid 1400s).
One of these beliefs is expressed by engaging in traditional medicine and ritual offerings to the Inca sun god “Inti” and the goddess of the earth “Pachamama”.
Within the community, the Aymara have a group of natural healers and medicine workers known as the Yatiri. These practitioners play a vital role in Aymara cultural identity.