forces in earth s crust part 1
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Forces in Earth’s Crust Part 1. Stress : a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume *The movement of Earth’s plates creates an enormous force that squeezes or pulls the rock in the crust . Three different types of stress can occur in the crust:. 1) Tension 2) Compression

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Stress: a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume*The movement of Earth’s plates creates an enormous force that squeezes or pulls the rock in the crust
tension
Tension

*a stress force that pulls on the rock, stretching it so that it becomes thinner in the middle

*occurs when two plates are moving apart

compression
Compression
  • Squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
  • One plate pushing against another can compress rock like a giant trash compactor
shearing
Shearing
  • Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions
  • Can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change shape
what is a fault
What is a Fault?
  • When a rock breaks as a result of stress build-up in the rock
  • A fault is a break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip/grind past each other
  • Rocks on either side of a fault can move up, down, or sideways.
3 types of faults
3 Types of Faults
  • Normal Faults
  • Reverse Faults
  • Strike-slip Faults
normal fault2
Normal Fault
  • Tension in the Earth’s crust pulls rock apart
  • The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault line while the other block lies below the fault line
  • Hanging Wall: The block of rock that lies above the fault line
  • Footwall: The block of rock that lies below the fault line
normal fault3
Normal Fault
  • When movement occurs along a normal fault, the hanging wall slips downward
  • Normal faults are found along the Rio Grande rift valley in New Mexico
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