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You need 1. Notebook 2. Highlighter 3. Pen. Ch 22 Unification of Germany. Test tomorrow on . Vocabulary The Crimean War Reforms in the Ottoman Empire Italian Unification German Unification. Next Year Add Pictures. Learning Objective: A. I will explain the Unification of Germany.

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test tomorrow on
Test tomorrow on 


The Crimean War

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Italian Unification

German Unification

next year add pictures
Next Year Add Pictures

Learning Objective:

A. I will explain the Unification of Germany.

B. I will explain the effects of the Unification of


german unification
German Unification
  • The most important political development in Europe between 1848-1914
  • It transformed the Balance of
    • Economy
    • Military
    • International Power.
  • Germany was united by the conservative
    • Army
    • The monarchy
    • Prime minister of Prussia

German Confederation

    • Established at the COV
    • Loose federation of 39 states
      • Differed in size and strength
      • Appointed representatives meet at the diet in Frankfurt
      • Two strongest states were AUSTRIA and PRUSSIA
      • During the 1850’s Austria overseas the Diet of German Confederations
      • Zollverein (trade Union) the major states traded with each other.
        • Railways that linked economies
        • Enjoyed Free trade
        • Paid customs duties on imports.
        • Austria was not included in the Zollverein
          • Miss out on economic benefits.
frederick william iv of prussia
Frederick William IV Of Prussia
  • Given up thoughts of unification under Prussia
  • Austria opposed the union because it would lessen it’s influence in the German Confederation.
  • A series of domestic political changes and problems within Prussia
william i new king of prussia
William I New King Of Prussia
  • Frederick William IV Of Prussia
    • Insane
    • Brother took over: William I
  • William I
    • Prussian Patriot
    • Wanted to strengthen the Prussian Military
      • Increase the number of officers
      • Increase the mandatory amount of time to serve in the military from 2 years to 3 years.
      • Parliament refused to tax the people to make this happen.
      • Parliament in the King were Deadlock for 2 years.
otto von bismarck
Otto Von Bismarck
  • William I Turned to Bismarck for Help.
  • OVB, more than any other single individual, shaped the next 30 yrs. of European History.
  • He was a Junker (Noble landlord)
  • Interested in German Unification
  • 1840’s was elected to the provincial diet
  • 1851-59 Served as Prussian representative to the German Confederation
  • He became Prussian Ambassador to Russia
  • Ambassador to France
  • William I appointed him Prime Minister of Prussia
otto von bismarck2
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Conservative
  • He opposed Parliamentary
  • Supported Constitutionalism because he believed it preserved a strong monarchy.
  • He understood Prussia/German needed to have a strong industrial base.
  • Prussian Patriot
  • Dealed with things sensibly and realistically.
  • He put more trust in power and action than ideas.
prime minister bismarck
Prime Minister Bismarck
  • Moved against the liberal parliament.
  • Argued that he didn’t need Parliament to approve a new tax to strengthen the Army
  • He claimed that the constitution allowed the government to carry it’s tasks based on previous granted taxes.
  • Therefore taxes could be collected, but spent however the government saw fit.
    • Army and Monarchy supported Bismarck
  • Bismarck supported the idea of a unified Germany to win over nationalist supporters and squash liberal support..
danish war 1864
Danish War 1864
  • Kings of Denmark had ruled over
    • Schleswig-Holstein
    • They were never part of Denmark
    • Holstein: Germans predominated and belonged to German confederation.
    • 1863 Denmark moved to incorporate both duchies into Denmark.
    • German confederation proposed a war to halt the move.
    • Bismarck wanted to work alone or with Austria to deal with this situation.
    • 1864 Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark.
bismarck prepares for war with austria
Bismarck Prepares for War with Austria
  • Win against Denmark improved
    • his reputation
    • Strengthen his political hand.
  • Convention of Gastein (August 1865)
    • Austria: Holstein
    • Prussia: Schleswig
  • Bismarck Mended diplomatic fences
    • Supported the Russia’s suppression of Polish revolt.
    • He persuaded Napoleon to promise neutrality in an Austro-Prussian conflict.
    • Promised Italy Venetia if Italy supported Prussia in an Austro-Prussian war.
austro prussian war 1866
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
  • Argument over administration of Schleswig and Holstein
    • Who should keep internal order
    • Who should have the right to passage
  • Bismarck provokes Austria to declare War on Prussia
    • Army be obnoxious to Austria
  • Austria Appealed to the German Confederation to intervene.
    • Bismarck claimed this violated the 1864 alliance and the convention of Gastein: Results in the 7 Weeks War.
seven weeks war
Seven Weeks War
  • Prussian Army Under General Helmuth von Multke
    • Crushed the Austrian Forces
    • Austria was defeated

Treaty of Prague

  • Lenient towards Austria
  • Lost Venetia: Promised to Napoleon III and Given to Italy.
  • Excluded Austrian-Habsburgs from German affairs
  • Prussia established itself as the only major power among the German States
north german confederation
North German Confederation
  • 1867 Prussia Annexed
    • Hanover
    • Hesse Kassel
    • Nassau
    • City of Frankfurt
      • All supported Austria in the 7 week war.
      • All Dethroned their rulers.
  • Under Prussian leadership
    • All of Germany North of the Main River now formed the North German Confederation.
    • Each State retained it’s own local government.
    • All military forces were under federal control

C. The President of the confederation: King of Prussia

  • Chancellor: Bismarck
  • Legislator was created.
    • Two houses
      • A Federal Council
        • Bundesrat
          • Members appointed by the governments of the states.
        • Lower House
          • Reichstag
            • Chosen by universal male suffrage.
            • Reichstag had little power because they were loyal to the king
  • Bismarck Embraced democracy because he felt many peasants would vote conservative
prussian political goal
Prussian Political goal
  • Nationalism ideas triumphed over liberal ideas.
  • Parliament had approved the military budget it had failed to approve years ago.
  • Bismarck crushed liberalism by making by making the army and the monarchy the most popular institutions in the country.
bismarck s new goal franco prussian war 1870 1871
Bismarck’s New GoalFranco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

1.Add to the Southern States of Germany to his new North Confederation.

    • Bavaria
    • Würtemberg
    • Baden
    • Hesse Darmstadt
  • Problems in Spain gave him his opportunity to these territories to the confederation
spain 1868
Spain 1868
  • Military coup unseated the corrupt Queen of Spain, Isabella II
  • Replacement was Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmariengen
    • A catholic cousin of William I of Prussia
  • Leopold accepted the Spanish crown with Prussia’s Blessing. (July 2, 1870)
    • France Objected
    • France sent their ambassador to consult with William I
    • On July 12, 1870 Leopold’s dad renounced his Leo’s Spanish Throne.

4.Leopold’s Dad feared that war would break out between France and Prussia.

5. William was relieved the potential conflict was avoided.

6.However, William did not order Leopold to renounce the Spanish throne.

7. The French Further asked for William to assure France that he would never support Leopold to possess the Spanish crown.

8. William I refused, but said he might take the questions under further consideration.

9.Later that day Bismarck received a telegram from William Discussing the content of the meeting.


10. The peaceful resolution angered Bismarck

who was ready to go to war.

11. Bismarck edited the Ems dispatch.

12. He made it seem that William I and had insulted

Ambassador Benedetti.

13. This angered Napoleon III

14. Napoleon responded by declaring War on Prussia

  • July 19, 1870
  • Napoleon III was sick and not eager for War
  • Napoleon Felt that victory over the North German Confederation would renew popular support for France.

Map 22–2 THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY Under Bismarck’s leadership, and with the strong support of its royal house, Prussia used diplomatic and military means, on both the German and international stages, to forcibly unify the German states into a strong national entity.


15. The Southern German States Joined Prussia

against France.

  • Honoring treaties of 1866

16. Germany Defeated the French.

  • September 1,
  • Battle of Sedan
  • Captured Napoleon III
  • Captured Paris

The Prussian victory at the battle of Sedan in September l870 brought about the collapse of the regime of Louis Napoleon in France and sealed the Prussian accomplishment of the unification of Germany. In this contemporary photograph the Prussian infantry is making an advance.

Getty Images Inc.—Hulton Archive Photos


The proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, January 18, 1871, after the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War. Kaiser Wilhelm I is standing at the top of the steps under the flags. Bismarck is in the center in a white uniform.

Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz


German Empire was Created.

  • William Accepted the German title of Emperor.
  • Princes remained heads of their respective states.

Peace Settlement with France

  • Germany annexed (took possession) Alsace and Lorraine.

2. France had to pay a large indemnity (protection).

long range effects
Long-Range Effects
  • Germany was the new and most powerful country on the Continent.
  • Germany was rich in natural resources and talent.
  • Germany’s military and economy was strong
  • Germany’s unification was a blow to liberalism because it was conservative creation.
  • France had to return to a republican government