Development of Purdue Improved Drying Stove (PIDS) for Grain Drying Klein E. Ileleji, PhD. Associate Professor & Extension Engineer Associate Prof. Mechanical Engineering (by courtesy) Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Project Team Purdue University: Klein Ileleji (PD), Mohan Dutta, Titilayo Okoror, Corinne Alexander and Jacob Ricker-Gilbert (PIDS Development) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi: Ahmad Addo, Komla Dzisi, Ato Bart-Plange (PIDS Testing in Ghana) CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra: Kwame Vowotor, KafuiKpodo (Mycotoxin and Pest Mgt. Impact Assessment) Project in-country coordinator: Kwabena Adu-gyamfi Other Collaborators and stakeholders: • USDA-FAS • George Opit, OSU and Sam McNeill, UK (Rice Husk Ash as Grain Protectant) • ACDI/VOCA ADVANCE Project • Ghana Grains Council
Acknowledgements • Acknowledge Purdue Global Food Security Initiative and Global Policy Research Institute (GPRI) for providing the seed funding for this project Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Problem Statement During fact finding visit (USDA-FAS Project) in October 2010, drying was identified as a major problem affecting the ability of farmers to maintain quality of grain in storage. Farmers primarily depended on open air solar drying after harvesting high-moisture grain during the major season when harvest occurs and the minor season rains begin.
Grain Drying Challenges in the Humid Tropics • High post-harvest losses (PHL) from improperly dried grains. • Health problems related to aflatoxin contamination. • The yield potential in grain is inhibited by high PHL. • No alternative technology to sun drying yet available.
Exploratory Research Trip in August When: August 6 to 12, 2011 Who was involved at Purdue: • Klein Ileleji, Ag. & Biological Engineering • Corinne Alexander, Ag. Economics • Titilayo Okoror, Public Health Goal: Collect data from target community using culture-centered approach (CCA) to problem solving, understand and affirm that the problem targeted is accurate, meet with project partners and potential collaborators.
Outcome of trip Successfully conducted focus group sessions at two locations, Techiman in Brong-Ahafo region and Ejura in Ashanti region with a total of 72 participants (Traders, Farmers and Extension workers) Collected 10 hours of audio data from focus groups. Met with our stakeholders Confirmed that we are on the right track Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Outcome of Trip Received good feedback from agencies: • KNUST and CSIR-FPI are on board with project goals. • UN WFP and IFAD interested in PIDS technology and will support. • ACDI-VOCA ADVANCE: Interested and will support • USAID Ghana: Interested and will support The big questions was PIDS performance which needs to be proven by extensive testing – quality degradation of corn from smoke and soot were raised
Outcome of Trip We ascertained that drying is a major bottleneck in the grain value chain which affects: • Post-harvest losses • Grain quality and health • Grain productivity • Income generation • Lifelihood Data is currently being transcribed from Twi language to English and will be analyzed further
Some results of focus group survey compiled by: Corrine Alexander, PhD. Michael Jones, MS. Agricultural Economics Department Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
How is Maize Dried? *Can sum to more than 100% because some use more than one drying method.
How is Maize Dryness Determined? *Can sum to more than 100% because some use more than one test.
Objectives Develop a low-cost grain dryer which will be integrated into the existing homestead cooking stove for simultaneous cooking and drying of maize. Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Agro-Ecological Zones in Ghana DRYER • Major focus area for technology development and demonstration are Brong Ahafo and Ashanti regions of Ghana Focus on pilot study in Ghana WETTER Source: WFP
PIDS Concept and Testing Acknowledge Undergraduate Researchers: Nathaniel Bergman (ME, DURI Intern) Rachel Sinders (ME, DURI Intern) Megan Shafer (ME, DURI Intern) Zane Graper (ABE, DURI Intern) Jinhyun Kim (CHE, Special Project) Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Homestead grain granary Internal structure Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Opportunities for an Improved Stove Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
PIDS Holistic Concept Target drying entire corn harvested within one week Dry with biomass ag. residues (target 80% of fuel needs) Store dry grain using PICS technology Use rice husk ash as grain protectant from insects Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
PIDS Technology (PIDS-I Prototype) • PIDS technology combines an efficient cooking stove and crop dryer in one unit. • PIDS concept is an indigenous idea which has been optimized with engineering. • PIDS can utilize corn cobs as fuel to reduce drying energy and save firewood use. • PIDS will enable PICS to be used for other grains grown in the humid tropics.
Drying rates of corn at target temperatures(Using convective air-oven tests) Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
PIDS Testings Evaluate heat distribution and determine maximum temperature rise. Targeting 70oC (158oF) drying temperature. Determined dryer capacity and drying rate Tested two types of fuels (wood and corn cobs) Determined corn drying rate using lab study Understand how to control smoke and flame Evaluate corn quality (by smell and product quality) Evaluate particulate release Evaluate energy utilization and efficiency Redesign PIDS-I Prototype Document dryer operation
Data collection during tests • Temperatures in each heating chamber, heat transfer plenum, fire box and ambient • Determined drying chamber capacity • Determined drying rate for a 2 ha farm Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Temperature Distribution Data in PIDS-I in Heat Transfer Plenum Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Temperature Distribution Data in PIDS-I in Drying Tray Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Some major findings Smoke and coloring from soot is a problem Achieved the minimum target temperature of 60˚C in Chambers 1 and 2 Heat loss was a problem Need to understand the use of different biomass fuels Wind can be a problem during operation Need to work on modeling using CFD to understand heat transfer dynamics Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group
Yes, you’re right, PIDS make great hot dogs! Questions? Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group