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The Nervous System

The Nervous System. Andrea Sookchan Jasmine Hodge Billy Chang. Function of the Nervous System. The nervous system controls all of the body’s processes and movement including voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions.

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The Nervous System

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  1. The Nervous System Andrea Sookchan Jasmine Hodge Billy Chang

  2. Function of the Nervous System • The nervous system controls all of the body’s processes and movement including voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions. • It receives information from environmental stimuli and processes it in the brain and spinal cord to allow for a response.

  3. Structure of the Nervous System • The Nervous system is comprised of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • The CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. • The PNS is the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord and is broken into two parts: the Somatic nervous system and the Autonomic nervous system (ANS) • The ANS is further divided into the Sympathetic nervous system and the Parasympathetic nervous system.

  4. Function and Structure of Neurons Neurons are nerve cells that consist of a cell body (and nucleus), dendrites, the axon which is covered by the myelin sheath and the terminal buttons which connect to another neuron. These cells carry messages (impulse) throughout the nervous system.

  5. The Synapse • The synapse is the space between two connected neurons. This is where the message is transmitted from one cell to another. • Neurotransmitters travel along the axon to the terminal buttons of the first neuron and are released in the synaptic gap. They are received by the second neuron on its receptor sites on the dendrites.

  6. Types of Neurons • The three types of neurons are: • Sensory Neurons – Detect stimuli • Interneurons – Analyze and interpret information • Motor neurons – Convey signal to muscles Neurons follow an “all or none” principle. This means they either fire the impulse, or they do not. There is no in between.

  7. The Brain • The brain is divided into three main parts: • Hindbrain • Midbrain • Forebrain

  8. Hindbrain • The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. • The hindbrain controls the body’s vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. • The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned movements

  9. Midbrain • The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements.

  10. Forebrain • The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. • It is comprised of the cerebral hemispheres which can be further divided into several lobes that are involved in various functions. They include: • Frontal Lobe • Parietal Lobe • Occipital Lobe • Temporal Lobe

  11. Function of the lobes • The frontal lobe controls the ability to make plans, and reason. It contains the motor area which helps in voluntary movement and Broca’s area which allows thoughts to be transformed into words. • The parietal lobe is the main sensory area and receives information about temperature, taste, touch and movement. • The occipital lobe receives and processes images from the eyes. • The temporal lobe receives and processes information from the ears.

  12. Label the lobes of the brain

  13. Autonomic Nervous System • This system innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and the glands, and regulates visceral processes including those associated with cardiovascular activity, digestion, metabolism, and thermoregulation. • There are two divisions of the ANS which include: • Sympathetic – “Flight or Fight” response • Parasympathetic – Calming down

  14. Somatic Nervous System • The somatic nervous system is responsible for all voluntary muscle contractions and sensory information processing. It enervates all sensory organs, including the eyes, ears, tongue, and skin, as well as all the skeletal muscles, and the muscles attached to the bone and used for voluntary movement.


  16. Fill in the blanks

  17. References • http://www.biology-online.org/8/1_nervous_system.htm • http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm • http://www.humannervoussystem.info/ • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409709/human-nervous-system

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