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Resistance training. By : Matt Fleekop. Developing a Resistance Training Program. Perform a needs analysis Acute program variables SAID Principal. Needs Analysis.

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resistance training

Resistance training


Matt Fleekop

developing a resistance training program
Developing a Resistance Training Program
  • Perform a needs analysis
  • Acute program variables
  • SAID Principal
needs analysis
Needs Analysis
    • The purpose of a needs analysis is so the trainer can design a specific and individualized training program based on the sport/activity of the athlete.
  • Physiological needs of sport?
  • Muscle actions used during the sport?
  • Athlete’s strengths/weaknesses? Any health/injury problems? What phase of competition is athlete in?
acute program variables
Acute Program Variables
  • Exercise Selection
  • Repetition Velocity
  • Volume
  • Loading
  • Rest Intervals
  • The purpose of program variables is to make sure the athlete’s specific needs are met, optimal performance can be achieved, there is progression, and to prevent plateaus.
said principal
SAID Principal
  • Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
  • The adaptations to resistance exercise are specific to the demands of the program; the demands of the program are determined by the acute program variables
training for strength power hypertrophy and endurance
Training for strength, power, hypertrophy, and endurance:
  • Muscular Strength
    • Neuromuscular system’s ability to generate force
    • Increased amounts of motor units, muscle fibers, a large cross sectional area, and frequent acts of muscle stimulation will all cause an increase in muscle strength
      • Exercise Selection
        • Multiple-joint exercises- use more muscles, can lift a heavier weight, take more skill and technique (choose multiple joint exercises of optimal gains)
        • Single-joint exercises- hits isolated muscles, less risk of injury
        • Pyramiding- increase weight and decrease reps each set (up and down)
        • Negatives (eccentric), Heavy negatives
      • Loading
        • Depends a lot on the athlete’s current training status
        • Beginners- 45-50% 1RM, Experienced- 80-100% 1RM
      • Volume
        • Also depends on current training status
        • Beginners can see benefits from single-set programs
        • Overall, multiple-set (2-6 sets, heavy weight, low reps) programs will cause the most muscular strength
      • Rest Intervals
        • Depends on the exercise: Fundamental (Squat/Dead lift)- 2-3 mins, Assisted (Machine Leg Curl)- 1-2 mins.
        • For muscular strength, 2-3 min rest between sets because we are performing fundamental exercises with a heavy load
      • Repetition Velocity
        • How fast we move the load
        • Training at moderate velocity produces the greatest increases in strength (180-240* - sec)
muscular power
Muscular Power
  • Power is increased by performing greater work in the same time, or the same work in lesser time
  • Max rate of force developed, muscular strength at slow and fast velocities, stretch-shortening cycle, and coordination of movements and skill
  • 30-45% 1RM in exercises with little deceleration phases in the lift (hang pulls, squat jumps) will cause maximal mechanical power (high velocity, light load)
    • Exercise Selection
      • Multiple-joint total-body exercises produce the most power (power cleans, push presses)
      • Explosive movements that allow acceleration through a full ROM
    • Loading
      • Periodized throughout the program
      • Integrate light load, high velocity (30-45% 1RM) with heavy loads ( 85-100 1RM), Maximum Power occurs at 70% of 1 RM
    • Volume
      • 3-6 sets of 1-6 reps will maximize power
    • Rest Intervals
      • 2-3 mins between sets
    • Repetition Velocity
      • Look to perform each rep with maximal acceleration (concentric phase)
muscular hypertrophy
Muscular Hypertrophy
  • Mechanical damage, muscle’s cross-sectional area, eccentric muscular contractions, tension, metabolic stress
  • Increase in protein synthesis after exercise, increase in fast-twitch muscle fibers
  • Affects of testosterone, GH, insulin, IGF-1 on tissues during and after exercise
    • Exercise Selection
      • Can use single and multiple-joint exercises
      • Multiple-joint exercises should be performed for long-term gains in muscle size
      • Pyramiding
      • Supersets
      • Negatives (eccentric)
      • Pre Exhaustion
      • Drop Downs
    • Loading
      • Heavy loads (70-85% 1RM)
    • Volume
      • High volume (multiple sets for 6-12 reps)
    • Rest Intervals
      • 1-2 mins with moderate to high intensity and volume will cause more of an anabolic hormonal response than 2-3 mins rest with very heavy loads
      • Rest 2-3 mins between sets in fundamental exercises and 1-2 mins between sets in assisted exercises
    • Repetition Velocity
      • The load, number of reps, and goals of program all come before worrying about the velocity
muscular endurance
Muscular Endurance
  • Moving a specific pre-training load a maximal number of reps
    • Exercise Selection
      • Multiple or large muscle group exercises will stimulate the greatest metabolic response, leading to improved muscular endurance
      • Circuit Training- one exercise to the next with minimal rest between exercises
      • Pre Exhaustion
      • Suicides
    • Loading
      • Light loads
    • Volume
      • High volume (multiple sets with 20 or more reps)
    • Rest Intervals
      • Short rest periods (1 min. if 15 or more reps) (30 sec. if 10-15 reps)
    • Repetition Velocity
      • Fast velocity more effective
      • Use slower velocity with 10-15 reps
      • Use fast velocity with >15 reps
phases of competition season
Phases of Competition Season
  • Offseason (4-6 workouts/week)
  • Preseason (3-4 workouts/week)
  • In season (1-2 workouts/week)
  • Postseason (1-3 workouts/week)
three principals of progression
Three Principals of Progression
  • Progressive Overload
    • Gradual increase of stress placed on the body during resistance training
    • Only occurs if we keep pushing the body
    • Change: load, volume, velocity, rest periods
  • Variation
    • Periodization, changing the program over time to ensure long-term gains
    • Change: exercises, intensity, volume, velocity
  • Specificity
    • Training is specific to the muscle actions involved and used during the sport
  • Biren, Gregory and Biren, Blake (2011). Exercise Prescription. “Exercise Prescription”, pp.93-101. Linus Publications, Inc.
  • Chandler, T.J. and Brown, L.E. (2009). Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance. (Table: Summary of Resistance Training Exercise Prescription. Williams and Wilkins Publishers.
  • Schoenfed, B. (2011). The use of Specialized Training Techniques to maximize Muscle Hypertrophy. Strength and Conditioning Journal. Vol. 33(4), pp. 60-63, August.