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Resistance Training chapter15 ResistanceTraining Thomas R. Baechle, EdD; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*DRoger W. Earle, MA; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*DDan Wathen, MS; ATC; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D; FNSCA
Chapter Objectives • Evaluate sport requirements and assess an athlete. • Select exercises based on type, sport speci-ficity, technique experience, equipment availability, and time availability. • Determine training frequency based on training status, sport season, load, exercise type, and other concurrent exercise. • Arrange exercises in a training session. (continued)
Chapter Objectives (continued) • Determine 1-repetition maximum (1RM), predicted 1RM from a multiple RM, and RM loads. • Assign load and repetitions based on the training goal. • Determine how to increase exercise load. • Assign training volumes according to the athlete’s training status and training goal. • Determine rest period lengths based on the training goal.
Resistance Training • Resistance Training Program Design Variables • Needs analysis • Exercise selection • Training frequency • Exercise order • Training load and repetitions • Volume • Rest periods
Section Outline • Step 1: Needs Analysis • Evaluation of the Sport • Assessment of the Athlete • Training Status • Physical Testing and Evaluation • Primary Resistance Training Goal
Step 1: Needs Analysis • Needs analysis is a two-stage process that includes an evaluation of the requirements and characteristics of the sport and an assessment of the athlete.
Step 1: Needs Analysis • Evaluation of the Sport • movement analysis: Body and limb movement patterns and muscular involvement. • physiological analysis: Strength, power, hypertrophy, and muscular endurance priorities. • injury analysis: Common sites for joint and muscle injury and causative factors.
Step 1: Needs Analysis • Assessment of the Athlete • Training Status • Type of training program • Length of recent regular participation in previous training program(s) • Level of intensity involved in previous training program(s) • Degree of exercise technique experience
Step 1: Needs Analysis • Assessment of the Athlete • Physical Testing and Evaluation • Tests should relate to the athlete’s sport. • Use the results of the movement analysis to select tests. • After testing, compare results with normative or descriptive data to determine the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses. • Primary Resistance Training Goal • Typically to improve strength, power, hypertrophy, or muscular endurance. • Concentrate on one training outcome per season.
Section Outline • Step 2: Exercise Selection • Exercise Type • Core and Assistance Exercises • Structural and Power Exercises • Movement Analysis of the Sport • Sport-Specific Exercises • Muscle Balance • Exercise Technique Experience • Availability of Resistance Training Equipment • Available Training Time per Session
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Step 2 involves choosing exercises for a resistance training program.
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Exercise Type • Core and Assistance Exercises • Core exercises recruit one or more large muscle areas, involve two or more primary joints, and receive priority when one is selecting exercises because of their direct application to the sport. • Assistance exercises usually recruit smaller muscle areas, involve only one primary joint, and are considered less important to improving sport performance.
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Exercise Type • Structural and Power Exercises • Structural exercises emphasize loading the spine directlyor indirectly. • Power exercises are structural exercises that are performed very quickly or explosively.
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Movement Analysis of the Sport • Sport-Specific Exercises • The more similar the training activity is to the actual sport movement, the greater the likelihood that there will be a positive transfer to that sport. • This concept is called training specificity or the specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID).
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Movement Analysis of the Sport • Muscle Balance • agonist: The muscle or muscle group actively causing the movement. • antagonist: The sometimes passive muscle or muscle group located on the opposite side of the limb.
Step 2: Exercise Selection • Exercise Technique Experience • Do not assume that an athlete will perform an exercise correctly. • If there is any doubt, have the athlete demonstrate the exercise, and provide instruction as needed. • Availability of Resistance Training Equipment • Available Training Time per Session • Prioritize time-efficient exercises when time is limited.
Section Outline • Step 3: Training Frequency • Training Status • Sport Season • Training Load and Exercise Type • Other Training
Step 3: Training Frequency • Training frequency is the number of training sessions completed in a given time period. • For a resistance training program, a common time period is one week.
Step 3: Training Frequency • Training Status • Training status affects the number of rest days needed between sessions. • Three workouts per week are recommended for many athletes to allow sufficient recovery between sessions.
Key Point • The general guideline is to schedule train-ing sessions so that there is at least one rest or recovery day—but not more than three—between sessions that stress the same muscle groups.
Key Point • More highly resistance-trained (intermediate or advanced) athletes can augment their training by using a split routine in which different muscle groups are trained on different days.
Step 3: Training Frequency • Sport Season • Seasonal demands of the sport may limit the time available for resistance training.
Step 3: Training Frequency • Training Load and Exercise Type • Athletes who train with maximal or near-maximal loads require more recovery time prior to their next training session.
Step 3: Training Frequency • Other Training • Training frequency is influenced by the overall amount of physical stress. • Consider the effects of • other aerobic or anaerobic training, • sport skill practice, and • physically demanding occupations.
Section Outline • Step 4: Exercise Order • Power, Other Core, Then Assistance Exercises • Upper and Lower Body Exercises (Alternated) • “Push” and “Pull” Exercises (Alternated) • Supersets and Compound Sets
Step 4: Exercise Order • Exercise order is the sequence of resist-ance exercises performed during one training session.
Step 4: Exercise Order • Power, Other Core, Then Assistance Exercises • Power exercises such as the snatch, hang clean, power clean, and push jerk should be performedfirst in a training session, followed by other nonpower core exercises and then assistance exercises.
Key Term • preexhaustion: “Reverse” exercise arrange-ment where the athlete purposely fatigues a large muscle group as a result of performance of a single-joint exercise prior to a multijoint exercise involving the same muscle.
Step 4: Exercise Order • Upper and Lower Body Exercises (Alternated) • One method of providing the opportunity for athletes to recover more fully between exercises is to alternate upper body exercises with lower body exercises. • If the exercises are performed with minimal rest periods, this method is also referred to as circuit training.
Step 4: Exercise Order • “Push” and “Pull” Exercises (Alternated) • Another method of improving recovery and recruitment between exercises is to alternate pushing exercises (e.g., bench press, shoulder press, and triceps extension) with pulling exercises (e.g., lat pulldown, bent-over row, biceps curl).
Step 4: Exercise Order • Supersets and Compound Sets • A superset involves two sequentially performed exercises that stress two opposing muscles or muscle areas (i.e., an agonist and its antagonist). • A compound set involves sequentially performing two different exercises for the same muscle group.
Section Outline • Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • Terminology Used to Quantify and Qualify Mechanical Work • Relationship Between Load and Repetitions • 1RM and Multiple-RM Testing Options • Testing the 1RM • Estimating a 1RM • Using a 1RM Table • Using Prediction Equations • Multiple-RM Testing Based on Goal Repetitions (continued)
Section Outline (continued) • Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • Assigning Load and Repetitions Based on the Training Goal • Repetition Maximum Continuum • Percentage of the 1RM • How to Calculate a Training Load • Assigning Percentages for Power Training • Variation of the Training Load • Progression of the Training Load • Timing Load Increases • Quantity of Load Increases
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • Terminology Used to Quantify and Qualify Mechanical Work • Mechanical work = force × displacement • Load-volume is a practical measure for the quantity of work performed in resistance training. • Load-volume = weight units × repetitions • Arrangement of repetitions and sets affects the intensity value, a measure of the quality of work performed.
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • Relationship Between Load and Repetitions • The heavier the load, the lower the number of repetitions that can be performed. • Load is commonly described as a percentage of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) or as a repetition maximum (RM).
Key Terms • load: Most simplistically referred to as the amount of weight assigned to an exercise set; often characterized as the most critical aspect of a resistance training program. • 1-repetition maximum (1RM): Greatest amount of weight that can be lifted with proper technique for only one repetition. • repetition maximum (RM): Most weight lifted for a specified number of repetitions.
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • 1RM and Multiple-RM Testing Options • Testing the 1RM • 1RM testing requires adequate training status (intermediate or advanced) and experience with the exercises being tested. • Choose core exercises for 1RM testing. • Choose exercises that can accurately and consistently assess muscular strength and that allow the athlete to maintain correct body position throughout the testing.
Figure 15.1 Reprinted, by permission, from Earle, 2006.
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • 1RM and Multiple-RM Testing Options • Estimating a 1RM • Using a 1RM Table • To estimate the athlete’s 1RM, consult table 15.8 (pp. 397-398 in Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Third Edition). • In the “Max reps (RM) = 10” (%1RM = 75) column, first find the tested 10RM load; then read across the row to the left to discover the athlete’s projected 1RM.
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • 1RM and Multiple-RM Testing Options • Estimating a 1RM • Using Prediction Equations • Equations are available to predict the 1RM from multiple-RM loads. • They are most accurate when based on low (≤10) multiple-RM testing. • Multiple-RM Testing Based on Goal Repetitions • A third option for determining training loads requires the strength and conditioning professional to first decide the number of repetitions (i.e., the goal repetitions) the athlete will perform in the actual program for the exercise being tested.
Step 5: Training Load and Repetitions • Assigning Load and Repetitions Based on the Training Goal • Once decided on, the training goal can be applied to determine specific load and repetition assignments via the RM continuum, a percentage of the 1RM, or the results of multiple-RM testing.
Assigning Training Loadsand Repetitions • Figure 15.2 (next slide) • Summary of testing and assigning training loads and repetitions
Figure 15.2 Reprinted, by permission, from Earle, 2006.