EVERYTHING BEGAN IN COVADONGA • Pelayo resisted the Moors who invaded Spain in the battle of Covadonga (722) and established the Kingdom of Asturias.
THE KINGDOM OF LEÓN • Alfonso III extended the Kingdom to the South and moves the capital to León. • The repopulation of the lands of the Duero give attachment to the Kingdom.
BORN THE COUNTY OF CASTILLA • The secession of the County of Castilla by the count Fernán González occurs in the 10th century.
THE HOUSE OF NAVARRA • Following Sancho III the Largest, King of Pamplona, Castilla joined the Crown of Navarra to be inherited as a Kingdom by Fernando I of Castilla, who conquered León. • At the same time, Al - Andalus disintegrates into kingdoms of Taifa.
CASTILLA ARRIVES AT THE TAJO • Alfonso VI reconquest Toledo and goes up to the Tajo (1085). • The Cid wins prestige with his exploits. • On the death of Alfonso VI starts the secession of Portugal.
CASTILLA LA MANCHA DOMINATES • The lands of the Guadiana are vying to the Almohads, once dissolved the Almoravid empire, amid a spirit of crusade that Alfonso VIII of Castilla leads: Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) opened the path of the Guadalquivir.
FERNANDO III THE HOLY AND THE CONQUEST OF THE GUADALQUIVIR • With Fernando III the Holy and his son Alfonso X the Wise, Castilla (already linked inseparably to León from 1230) dominates the Guadalquivir (fall Jaen, Cordoba, Sevilla and Cádiz). • The Kingdom of Granada will be the last remnant of Al - Andalus: vassal and tributary of Castilla and with a difficult terrain. The reconquest relaxes. • The dispute of the Strait of Gibraltar to the benimerins will be long (until the second half of the 15th century: in 1465).
CIVIL WARS BEFORE THE SPANISH UNIT • Since the 14th century and during part of the 15th, the Spanish policy lives infighting leading to the enthronement of the Trastámara (Enrique II the fratricide, 1369), failed attempts of reinstate Portugal by weapons (Aljubarrota, 1385) and civil conflict associated with the weakness of Enrique IV.
QUEEN ISABEL I OF CASTILLA • The enthronement of Isabel I in 1474, at the death of Enrique IV, against the candidacy of Juana la Beltraneja, opens the way to the Spanish Unit, since she was married from 1469 with Fernando (future King of Aragon as Fernando II, who has gone down in history as Fernando V of Castilla and Spain or Fernando the Catholic).
UNFINISHED BUSINESS • The conquest of Granada and the annexation of Navarra, as well as the incorporation of Portugal into the common Crown remained outstanding.