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Naming Covalent/ Molecular Compounds. Naming Covalent Compounds. Hydrogen compounds are handled differently and will be looked at first. Nomenclature: 1) Name the hydrogen that appears in the formula.

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slide2

Naming Covalent Compounds

Hydrogen compounds are handled differently and will be

looked at first.

Nomenclature:

1) Name the hydrogen that appears in the formula.

2) Name the second element that appears in the formula, changing its ending to –ide.

Examples:

HCl hydrogen chloride

HI hydrogen iodide

covalent bonds use prefixes to indicate the number of atoms involved in the compounds
Covalent Bonds use Prefixes to indicate the number of atoms involved in the compounds

1= mono 6 = hexa

2 = di 7= hepta

3 = tri 8 = octa

4 = tetra 9 = nona

5 = penta 10 = deca

rules
RULES

1- The name of the first element does not get changed, only a prefix is added if it is more than one.

Ex: Trisulfur tetrafluoride S3F4

2- The second element gets a different ending, as well as a prefix.

Ex : phosphorus trichloride PCl3

(NOT: phosphorustrichlorine)

rules continued
RULES continued..

3- If the first element in the compound is single you do not write mono:

ex. CO2 - carbon dioxide

(NOT monocarbon dioxide)

4- If the element’s name starts with a vowel, and the prefix ends with a vowel, you can drop the last vowel on the prefix:

ex. S5O10 - pentasulfur decoxide

(NOT pentasulfur decaoxide)

rules continued1
RULES continued..

5- Covalent compounds do not get simplified. Name the compound exactly as you see it:

Ex. H2F2 = dihydrogen difluoride

(NOT hydrogen monofluoride HF)

slide7

Naming Covalent Compounds

What is the name of SO3?

STEP 1 The first nonmetal is S sulfur.

STEP 2 The second nonmetal is O, named oxide.

STEP 3 The subscript 3 of O is shown as the prefix tri.

SO3→ sulfur trioxide

The subscript 1(for S) or mono is understood.

slide8

Naming Covalent Compounds (Continued)

Name P4S3

STEP 1 The first nonmetal P is phosphorus.

STEP 2 The second nonmetal S is sulfide.

STEP 3 The subscript 4 of P is shown astetra.

The subscript 3 of O is shown as tri.

P4S3→tetraphosphorus trisulfide

slide9

Names of Covalent Compounds

Remember Prefixes are used

  • in the names of covalent compounds
  • because two nonmetals can form two or more different compounds

Examples of compounds of N and O:

NO nitrogen oxide

NO2 nitrogen dioxide

N2O dinitrogen oxide

N2O4 dinitrogentetroxide

N2O5 dinitrogenpentoxide

slide10

Learning Check

Select the correct name for each compound.

A. SiCl4 1) silicon chloride

2) tetrasilicon chloride

3) silicon tetrachloride

B. P2O5 1) phosphorus oxide

2) phosphorus pentoxide

3) diphosphorus pentoxide

C. Cl2O7 1) dichlorine heptoxide

2) dichlorine oxide

3) chlorine heptoxide

slide11

Solution

Select the correct name for each compound.

A. SiCl4 3) silicon tetrachloride

B. P2O5 3) diphosphorus pentoxide

C. Cl2O7 1) dichlorine heptoxide

slide12

Learning Check

Write the correct formula for each of the following:

A. phosphorus pentachloride

B. dinitrogen trioxide

C. sulfur hexafluoride

slide13

Solution

Write the correct formula for each of the following:

A. phosphorus pentachloride

1P penta = 5Cl PCl5

B. dinitrogen trioxide

di = 2N tri = 3 O N2O3

C. sulfur hexafluoride

1S hexa = 6F SF6

try these
TRY THESE:
  • Diphosphorus pentoxide
  • Nitrogen monoxide
  • Xenon hexafluoride
  • Tetrarsenic decoxide
slide15

More Examples

a) SiO2

b) N2S5

c)P4O10

d)BrCl6

slide17

Name the following binary molecular compounds: (a) NF3 and (b) N2O4.

Strategy Each compound will be named using the systematic nomenclature.

Solution (a) nitrogen trifluoride

(b) dinitrogen tetroxide

Think About It Make sure that the prefixes match the subscripts in the molecular formulas and that the word oxide is not preceded immediately by an “a” or an “o”.

slide18

Write the chemical formulas for the following binary molecular compounds: (a) sulfur tetrafluoride and (b) tetraphosphorus decasulfide.

Strategy The formula for each compound will be deduced using the systematic nomenclature guidelines.

Solution (a) SF4

(b) P4S10

Think About It Double-check that the subscripts in the formulas match the prefixes in the compound names: (a) 4 = tetra and (b) 4 = tetra and 10 = deca.

slide19

Learning Check

Write the name of each covalent compound.

CO _____________________

CO2 _____________________

PCl3 _____________________

CCl4 _____________________

N2O _____________________

slide20

Solution

Write the name of each covalent compound.

CO carbon monoxide

CO2 carbon dioxide

PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride

N2O dinitrogen oxide

slide21

Review of Covalent Compounds

HI

hydrogen iodide

NF3

nitrogen trifluoride

SO2

sulfur dioxide

N2Cl4

dinitrogen tetrachloride

NO2

nitrogen dioxide

N2O

dinitrogen monoxide

slide22

Ionic and Covalent

Identify each compound as ionic or covalent, and give

its correct name.

A. SO2

B. BaCl2

C. (NH4)3PO4

D. Cu2CO3

E. N2O4

slide23

Solution

Identify each compound as ionic or covalent, and give

its correct name.

A. SO2 covalent; sulfur dioxide

B. BaCl2 ionic; barium chloride

C. (NH4)3PO3 ionic; ammonium phosphite

D. Cu2CO3 ionic; copper(I) carbonate

E. N2O4 covalent; dinitrogen tetroxide

slide24

Learning Check

Name the following compounds:

A. Ca3(PO4)2

B. FeBr3

C. SCl2

D. Cl2O

slide25

Solution

Name the following compounds:

A. Ca3(PO4)2 ionic Ca2+, PO43−calcium phosphate

B. FeBr3 ionicFe3+, Br−iron(III) bromide

C. SCl2 covalent 1S, 2Cl sulfur dichloride

D. Cl2O covalent 2Cl, 1 O dichlorine oxide