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Covalent Bonding

Covalent Bonding

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Covalent Bonding

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  1. Covalent Bonding Chap. 9

  2. Why does it form?

  3. Why does it form? • Octet rule An atom will gain, lose, or share electrons in order to get a full set

  4. Why does it form? • Octet rule • Stability/Minimum energy

  5. Why does it form? • What is a molecule? Molecule = covalent compound

  6. Why does it form? • What is a molecule? • Non-metal with a non-metal

  7. Why does it form? • What is a molecule? • Non-metal with a non-metal • Some molecules are diatomic Molecules made of two of the same atom

  8. Why does it form? • What is a molecule? • Non-metal with a non-metal • Some molecules are diatomic • Properties

  9. Properties of Covalent Compounds • Often are gases or liquids

  10. Properties of Covalent Compounds • Often are gases or liquids • Tend to have lower M.P.

  11. Properties of Covalent Compounds • Often are gases or liquids • Tend to have lower M.P. • Often are soft

  12. Properties of Covalent Compounds • Often are gases or liquids • Tend to have lower M.P. • Often are soft • Many are non-electrolytes

  13. Representing Molecules Lewis structure uses dots and dashes to represent electrons and bonds

  14. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types

  15. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Single bond Bond made of one pair of shared electrons

  16. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Single bond • Double bond Bond made of two pairs of shared electrons

  17. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Single bond • Double bond • Triple bond Bond made of three pairs of shared electrons

  18. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Single bond • Double bond • Triple bond • Quadruple bond?

  19. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Bond strength Bond energy measures the bond strength.

  20. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Bond strength • The longer the bond the ______ the bond energy

  21. Representing Molecules • Covalent Bond types • Bond strength • The longer the bond the ______ the bond energy • Double bonds require _____ energy to break than single bonds.

  22. Bond energy example What is the energy change for this reaction? Is it exothermic? H2 + Cl2 2HCl H-H 436 kJ Cl-Cl 242 kJ HCl 431 kJ

  23. VI. Naming Covalent Compounds

  24. VI. Naming Covalent Compounds • Binary Inorganic Molecules

  25. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds

  26. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds 1. Name the first. . .

  27. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds 1. Name the first. . . 2. Name the second with. . .

  28. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds 1. Name the first. . . 2. Name the second with. . . 3. Use prefixes to tell. . .

  29. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds • 1. Name the first. . . • 2. Name the second with. . . • Use prefixes to tell. . . • Never begin name with . . .

  30. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms

  31. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono-

  32. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 2. di-

  33. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 2. di- 3. tri-

  34. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 2. di- 3. tri- 4. tetra-

  35. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 2. di- 3. tri- 4. tetra- 5. penta-

  36. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 6. hexa- 2. di- 3. tri- 4. tetra- 5. penta-

  37. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 6. hexa- 2. di- 7. hepta- 3. tri- 4. tetra- 5. penta-

  38. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 6. hexa- 2. di- 7. hepta- 3. tri- 8. octa- 4. tetra- 5. penta-

  39. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 6. hexa- 2. di- 7. hepta- 3. tri- 8. octa- 4. tetra- 9. nona- 5. penta-

  40. Prefixes for Numbers of Atoms 1. mono- 6. hexa- 2. di- 7. hepta- 3. tri- 8. octa- 4. tetra- 9. nona- 5. penta- 10. deca-

  41. Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds 1. Name the first. . . 2. Name the second with. . . 3. Use prefixes to tell. . . 4. Never begin name with. . .

  42. VI. Naming Covalent Compounds • Binary Inorganic Molecules • Common Names

  43. VI. Naming Covalent Compounds • Binary Inorganic Molecules • Common Names • Organic Molecules Covalent compounds with carbon

  44. Names for organic hydrocarbons

  45. Names for organic hydrocarbons CH4 methane

  46. Names for organic hydrocarbons CH4 methane C2H6 ethane

  47. Names for organic hydrocarbons CH4 methane C2H6 ethane C3H8 propane

  48. Names for organic hydrocarbons CH4 methane C2H6 ethane C3H8 propane C4H10 butane

  49. Names for organic hydrocarbons CH4 methane C2H6 ethane C3H8 propane C4H10 butane C5H12 pentane

  50. Names for organic hydrocarbons C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22