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Introduction, History, and Selected Topics in Fundamental Theories of Metamaterials. N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowiski, Metamaterials – Physics and Engineering Explorations , Wiley, New York, Ch.1. Advisor: Prof. Ruey-Beei Wu Speaker: Ting-Yi Huang ( 黃定彝 ). Outlines. Introduction

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introduction history and selected topics in fundamental theories of metamaterials

Introduction, History, and Selected Topics in Fundamental Theories of Metamaterials

N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowiski, Metamaterials – Physics and Engineering Explorations, Wiley, New York, Ch.1

Advisor: Prof. Ruey-Beei Wu

Speaker: Ting-Yi Huang (黃定彝)

outlines
Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Theory and simulation
  • Interesting phenomena
  • Basic Applications
  • Conclusion
outlines3
Outlines
  • Introduction
    • History
    • Basic concepts
  • Theory and simulation
  • Interesting phenomena
  • Basic Applications
  • Conclusion
history 1 5
History (1/5)
  • Microwave experiment on twisted structures by Jagadis Chunder Bose, 1898

B: radiating box

P: polarizer

A: analyzer

S, S’: screen

R: receiver

J. C. Bose, “On the rotation of plane of polarisation of electric waves by a twisted structure,” Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 63, pp. 146–152, 1898.

history 2 5
History (2/5)
  • Artificial chiral media by embedding randomly oriented small wire helices in host media, Lindman, 1914

O: transmitter

I: indicator

B, U: metal tubes

R: sensor dipole

T: tuner

V, G: display

M: chiral medium

I. V. Lindell, A. H. Sihvola, and J. Kurkijarvi, “Karl F. Lindman: The last Hertzian, and a Harbinger of electromagnetic chirality,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 24–30, 1992

history 3 5
History (3/5)
  • Lightweight microwave lenses by periodical spheres, disks, and strips, Kock, 1948

W. E. Kock, “Waveguide lens system,” U.S. Patent 2,596,251, May 13, 1952.

history 4 5
History (4/5)
  • Theoretical study on plane wave propagation in materials with negative permittivity and permeability, Veselago, 1967

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Uspekhi, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 509–514, 1968. [Usp. Fiz. Nauk, vol. 92, pp. 517–526, 1967.]

history 5 5
History (5/5)
  • Anomalous refraction in composite medium, Smith and Schultz, 2000

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5514, pp. 77–79, 6 Apr. 2001

basic concepts 1 2
Basic Concepts (1/2)
  • Names and terminologies
    • Left-hand media
    • Media with negative refraction index
    • Backward-wave media
    • Double-negative (DNG) metamaterials
basic concepts 2 2
Basic Concepts (2/2)
  • Classification
    • Double positive (DPS) medium
    • Epsilon-negative (ENG) medium
    • Mu-negative (MNG) medium
    • Double-negative (DNG) medium
outlines11
Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Theory and simulation
    • Material models
    • Wave parameters
    • FDTD simulations
    • Causality
  • Interesting phenomena
  • Basic Applications
  • Conclusion
material models 1 2
Material Models (1/2)
  • Lorentz model

: damping coefficient

: coupling coefficient

resonant at f0 for

: electric susceptibility

material models 2 2
Material Models (2/2)
  • Special cases producing negative ε
    • Debye model: small acceleration
    • Drude model: negligible restoring force

– negative for

– plasma frequency

wave parameters
Wave Parameters
  • DNG media with small loss
  • Wavenumber and impedance
  • Index of refraction
fdtd simulations 1 2
FDTD Simulations (1/2)
  • Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 14, pp. 302-307, May 1966

fdtd simulations 2 2
FDTD Simulations (2/2)
  • Lossy Drude polarization/magnetization model
  • Model implementation in FDTD
causality
Causality
  • Nondispersive DNG medium is noncausal
outlines18
Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Theory and simulation
  • Interesting phenomena
    • Scattering
    • Backward waves
    • Negative refraction
  • Basic Applications
  • Conclusion
scattering
Scattering
  • Scattering with DNG slab
  • Growing evanescent wave in matched DNG slab
negative refraction 2 2
Negative Refraction (2/2)
  • In DNG media
  • For matched low loss DNG slab
outlines23
Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Theory and simulation
  • Interesting phenomena
  • Basic Applications
    • Phase compensation
    • Dispersion compensation
    • Subwavelength focusing
    • Zero index of refraction
  • Conclusion
phase compensation
Phase Compensation
  • Phase difference
  • Zero phase difference
  • Time-delayed WG with zero phase delay
subwavelength focusing 1 6
Subwavelength Focusing (1/6)
  • Perfect focusing
  • Paraxial focusing

y = 2d

n=1

n=1

n=-1

n=-2

y = -2d

subwavelength focusing 2 6
Subwavelength Focusing (2/6)
  • Perfect focus solution:
subwavelength focusing 4 6
Subwavelength Focusing (4/6)
  • Source far from the slab
subwavelength focusing 5 6
Subwavelength Focusing (5/6)
  • Gaussian beam with two different slabs
subwavelength focusing 6 6
Subwavelength Focusing (6/6)
  • Planoconcave DNG lens
zero index of refraction 1 3
Zero Index of Refraction (1/3)
  • Matched zero-index medium
  • Maxwell’s equations

Automatically satisfied for finite fields

zero index of refraction 2 3
Zero Index of Refraction (2/3)
  • Infinite cylindrical zero-index medium

outlines35
Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Theory and simulation
  • Interesting phenomena
  • Basic Applications
  • Conclusion
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Summary
    • Fundamental properties of DNG metamaterials
    • Interesting, unconventional features
  • Future work
    • More comprehensive review
    • Future potential applications