Chapter 17: Electric Forces and Fields

# Chapter 17: Electric Forces and Fields

## Chapter 17: Electric Forces and Fields

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##### Presentation Transcript

1. Chapter 17: Electric Forces and Fields

2. Objectives • Understand the basic properties of electric charge. • Differentiate between conductors and insulators. • Distinguish between charging by contact, charging by induction, and charging by polarization.

3. Electric Charge • protons have positive (+) charge • electrons have negative (–) charge • opposite charges attract; like charges repel • charge is always conserved (cannot be destroyed) • charge (q) is measured in coulombs (C) Charles Augustin Coulomb 1736 - 1806

4. Electric Charge is Quantized 1909: Robert Millikan qE Charge on drop occurs in multiples of 1.60 x 10-19 C (±1e, ±2e, ±3e…). + mg

5. Transfer of Electric Charge • charges move freely through conductors (typically metals) • charges do not move freely in insulators (most other solids) Electric charge can be transferred 3 ways: • contact • induction • polarization

6. Objectives • Calculate electric force using Coulomb’s law. • Compare electric force with gravitational force.

7. Coulomb’s Law Law of Universal Gravitation Coulomb’s Law k = 8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2 Compare the Fg and the Fe between the p+and e- in an H atom (r = 53 pm).

8. Objectives • Calculate electric field strength. • Draw and interpret electric field lines. • Identify the properties associated with a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium.

9. Electric Fields Field lines show direction and strength of force (represented by the line density) • gravitational field (g) • electric field (E): (+) → (–) units are N/C

10. Electric Fields The nucleus applies a force of 8.16 x 10-11N on the electron in a hydrogen atom. What is the electric field strength at the position of the electron?

11. Electric Field due to a Point Charge (a) What is the E-field strength at a distance of 0.45 m from a 8.2mC charge? (b) What force would be felt by a proton at this location? (c) What is the initial acceleration of the proton?

12. Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium electrostatic equilibrium: no net motion of charge (a) The total electric field inside a conductor equals zero. (b) Excess charge resides on the surface. (c) E-field lines extend perpendicular to the surface. (d) Charge accumulates at points.

13. Chapter 18: Electric Energy and Capacitance

14. Electric Potential Energy (EPE) • uniform field only! • displacement in direction of the field g E

15. EPE Problems • What is the change in EPE if a proton is moved 2.5mm in the direction of a uniform 7.0 x1011 N/C electric field? • What is the change in EPE if an electron is moved in the same direction?

16. EPE for a Pair of Charges • Two alpha particles (two helium nuclei, 2 p+ each) have an EPE of 6.32 x10-19 J. What is the distance between the two particles?

17. Potential Difference (Voltage) (uniform field only) • voltage (V) is EPE per charge • 1 volt = 1 J/C • measured with a voltmeterormultimeter • voltage is like “electric pressure”

18. Voltage Problems What voltage exists in a 3.5 x10-6 N/C electric field between two points that are 0.25 m apart?

19. Capacitors • Capacitors store EPE between two closely-spaced conductors that are separated by an insulator. • Capacitance is measured in farads (F). 1 F = 1 C/V

20. Chapter 19: Electric Current and Electric Power

21. Electric Current Electric charges will flow between areas of different electric potential (voltage) • electric current (I): a flow of • electric charge • 1 ampere (A) = 1 C/s • measured with an ammeter • although electrons typically flow, current is • defined as direction of positive flow (+ → –) • drift speed of e– in Cu at 10 A is only 0.00025 m/s • 0.005 A is painful and 0.070 A can kill you

22. Electric Resistance • resistance (R): resistance • to electron flow • measured in Ohms (Ω) • V ↑, I↑ • R ↑, I ↓ A 2400-Ω resistor is attached to a 12-V power source. What is the current through the wire?

23. AC/DC • alternating current: electric field reverses periodically, current alternates direction(60 hz in USA) • direct current: field is constant, current is constant • batteries produce DC • electric generators can make AC or DC

24. Electric Power and Energy Consider the units of voltage:

25. Power Problems If voltage = 120 V, what is the current through a 1200-W hairdryer? At \$0.05 / kW·hr, how much does it cost to operate a 240-W television for 24 hrs?